Chapter 5 macromolecules


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This is the powerpoint which I have created for my Biology project on macromolecules.

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Chapter 5 macromolecules

  1. 1. Chapter 5: Macromolecules <ul><ul><li>macromolecule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monomer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>condensation reaction/ dehydration reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>enzyme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydrolysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>monosaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>disaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glycosidic linkage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polysaccharide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>glycogen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>  lipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Triaglycerol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fatty acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trans fat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phospholipids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>steroids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cholesterol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>catalysts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polypeptides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>protein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amino acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>peptide bond </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>primary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>secondary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>alpha helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>beta pleated sheet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic interaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disulfide bridges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denaturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chaperonins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X-ray crystallography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic acid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>polynucleotides </li></ul></ul>
  2. 2. Chapter 5: Macromolecules <ul><ul><li>polynucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nucleotides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pyrimidine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deoxyribose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Double helix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antiparallel </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3.   Macromolecules <ul><li>Macromolecules are large molecules which are made up of smaller units that have emergent properties. </li></ul>
  4. 4.   Polymers and Monomers <ul><li>A polymer is a long molecule that is made up of smaller units called monomers . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  5. 5.   Condensation/Dehydration Reaction <ul><li>Polymers are formed by a condensation reaction or a dehydration reaction ; this is a reaction in which a covalent bond is formed between two monomers through the loss of a water molecule. </li></ul>
  6. 6.   Enzyme <ul><li>An enzyme is a special macromolecule that serves as a catalyst in a chemical reaction. </li></ul>
  7. 7.   Hydrolysis <ul><li>Hydrolysis is the process by which a polymer is broken down by the addition of water. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Carbohydrate <ul><li>A carbohydrate is sugar or a polymer or dimer of sugar. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Monosaccharides <ul><li>Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar; they usually have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH 2 O. A monosaccharide has one carbonyl (>C=O) and multiple hydroxyls (-OH). The location of the carbonyl determines whether the sugar is an aldose or a ketose. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Disaccharide <ul><li>A disaccharide is composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Glycosidic Linkage <ul><li>A glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction . </li></ul>
  12. 12. Polysaccharides <ul><li>Polysaccharides are composed of two or sugar monomers ( monosaccharides ) joined by glycosidic linkages . </li></ul>
  13. 13. Starch <ul><li>A starch is a storage polysaccharide which plants stockpile as granules in their plastids (a plastid is a cellular structure within a plant cell). </li></ul>
  14. 14. Glycogen <ul><li>Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide which is used by animals. Animals store glycogen mainly in their muscle and liver cells. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Cellulose <ul><li>Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide which is a major component of plant cell walls. Most animals cannot digest cellulose , though it is in all grains, fruits and vegetables. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids are not polymers and they usually aren’t large enough to be considered macromolecules . All lipids are hydrophobic (they don’t mix with water). </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fats <ul><li>Fats are lipids that are made up of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol by an ester linkage (a covalent bond between a carbonyl and a hydroxyl). </li></ul>