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Chapter 5 macromolecules
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Chapter 5 macromolecules

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This is the powerpoint which I have created for my Biology project on macromolecules.

This is the powerpoint which I have created for my Biology project on macromolecules.

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Chapter 5 macromolecules Chapter 5 macromolecules Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 5: Macromolecules
      • macromolecule
      • polymer
      • monomer
      • condensation reaction/ dehydration reaction
      • enzyme
      • hydrolysis
      • carbohydrates
      • monosaccharides
      • disaccharide
      • glycosidic linkage
      • polysaccharide
      • starch
      • glycogen
      • cellulose
      •   lipids
      • Fat
      • Fatty acid
      • Triaglycerol
      • Saturated fatty acid
      • Unsaturated fatty acid
      • Trans fat
      • phospholipids
      • steroids
      • cholesterol
      • catalysts
      • polypeptides
      • protein
      • amino acids
      • peptide bond
      • primary structure
      • secondary structure
      • alpha helix
      • beta pleated sheet
      • Tertiary structure
      • Hydrophobic interaction
      • Disulfide bridges
      • Quaternary structure
      • Denaturation
      • Chaperonins
      • X-ray crystallography
      • Nucleic acids
      • Gene
      • Deoxyribonucleic acid
      • Ribonucleic acid
      • polynucleotides
  • Chapter 5: Macromolecules
      • polynucleotides
      • nucleotides
      • pyrimidine
      • purine
      • Ribose
      • Deoxyribose
      • Double helix
      • antiparallel
  •   Macromolecules
    • Macromolecules are large molecules which are made up of smaller units that have emergent properties.
  •   Polymers and Monomers
    • A polymer is a long molecule that is made up of smaller units called monomers .
    •  
  •   Condensation/Dehydration Reaction
    • Polymers are formed by a condensation reaction or a dehydration reaction ; this is a reaction in which a covalent bond is formed between two monomers through the loss of a water molecule.
  •   Enzyme
    • An enzyme is a special macromolecule that serves as a catalyst in a chemical reaction.
  •   Hydrolysis
    • Hydrolysis is the process by which a polymer is broken down by the addition of water.
  • Carbohydrate
    • A carbohydrate is sugar or a polymer or dimer of sugar.
  • Monosaccharides
    • Monosaccharides are the simplest form of sugar; they usually have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH 2 O. A monosaccharide has one carbonyl (>C=O) and multiple hydroxyls (-OH). The location of the carbonyl determines whether the sugar is an aldose or a ketose.
  • Disaccharide
    • A disaccharide is composed of two monosaccharides joined by a glycosidic linkage .
  • Glycosidic Linkage
    • A glycosidic linkage is a covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction .
  • Polysaccharides
    • Polysaccharides are composed of two or sugar monomers ( monosaccharides ) joined by glycosidic linkages .
  • Starch
    • A starch is a storage polysaccharide which plants stockpile as granules in their plastids (a plastid is a cellular structure within a plant cell).
  • Glycogen
    • Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide which is used by animals. Animals store glycogen mainly in their muscle and liver cells.
  • Cellulose
    • Cellulose is a structural polysaccharide which is a major component of plant cell walls. Most animals cannot digest cellulose , though it is in all grains, fruits and vegetables.
  • Lipids
    • Lipids are not polymers and they usually aren’t large enough to be considered macromolecules . All lipids are hydrophobic (they don’t mix with water).
  • Fats
    • Fats are lipids that are made up of three fatty acids joined to a glycerol by an ester linkage (a covalent bond between a carbonyl and a hydroxyl).