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Mycobacterium tuberculosis
 

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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    Mycobacterium tuberculosis Mycobacterium tuberculosis Presentation Transcript

    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Dr Kamran Afzal Asst Prof Microbiology
    • Tuberculosis - The Captain of Death
    • Historical background
      • Neolithic time
        • 2400 BC - Egyptian mummies spinal columns
      • 460 BC
        • Hippocrates, Greece
        • First clinical description: Phthisis / Consumption
      • 500-1500 AD
        • Roman occupation of Europe, it spread to Britain
      • 1650-1900 AD
        • ‘ White plague’ of Europe
        • 1:5 deaths
      • 1890 (Robert Koch)
        • Discovery of staining technique that identified Bacillus tuberculosis
        • Definite diagnosis made possible and thus treatment could begin
        • Tuberculin’s diagnostic use discovered
      • 1908-1920
        • Vaccine (BCG)
      • 1943 (Selman Abraham Waksman)
        • Streptomycin discovered
        • Injections dramatically recovered TB patients
    • Mycobacteria
      • The name mycobacterium means “fungus bacterium” due to fungus-like pellicle formed by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in liquid media
    • Species differentiation
      • Order - Actinomycetales
      • Family - Mycobacteriaceae
      • Genus - Mycobacterium
      • Usually grouped into 2 divisions
        • Typical mycobacteria (MTb Complex)
        • Atypical mycobacteria
          • Slow growing > 7 days
          • Rapidly growing < 7 days
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex
      • Mycobacterium tuberculosis
      • Mycobacterium bovis
      • Mycobacterium africanum
      • Mycobacterium microti
      • Mycobacterium canetii
      • M.avium-intracellulare complex
      • M. scrofulaceum
      • M. xenopi
      • M. paratuberculosis
      • M. malmoense
      • M. marinum
      • M. farcinogenes
      • M. k ansasii
      • M. haemophilum
      • M. chelonae
      • M. fortuitum
      • M. ulcerans
      • M. intermedium
      • Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis (MOTT)
      • Atypical Mycobacteria
      Nontuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM)
    • Gen Characteristics - Mycobacteria
      • 80 species, 20 are known pathogens
      • Gram positive but are not easily stained
      • Non-encapsulated and do not form spores
      • Acid-fast
      • Resistant to drying and chemical disinfectants but sensitive to heat and UVL
      • Lipids (60% of the cell wall weight)
        • Mycolic acid – responsible for acid fastness
        • Phospholipids – induce caseation necrosis
        • Cord factor (trehaloses)
          • Present in virulent strains that grow in a cord like pattern
          • It inhibits migration of leukocytes
          • Causes chronic granulomas
      Components of cell wall
      • Protein
        • Tuberculin reaction
        • Elicit formation of antibodies
        • Granuloma formation
      • Lipopolysaccharides (Lipoarabinomannan LAM)
        • Inhibition of macrophage activation by IFN
        • Release of cytokines (TNF  ) from macrophages which causes fever, weight loss and tissue damage
    • Cell Wall Structure
    • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (AFB)