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Concept of Infection Control

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Concept of Infection Control

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Concept of Infection Control

  1. 1. Concept of Infection Control Dr Kamran Afzal FCPS, PhD
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS • INFECTION: An invasion of pathogens or microorganisms into the body that are capable of producing disease This invasion and reproduction of microorganisms in a body tissue can result in a local or systemic clinical response such as cellulitis or fever • COMMUNITY ACQUIRED INFECTION (CAI) An infection present or incubating at the time of admission to a hospital without any association to previous hospitalization at the same facility • HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTION (HAI/NI) An infection in a patient which was not present at the time of admission
  3. 3. • COLONIZATION The presence of microorganism in or on a host, with growth and multiplication but without tissue invasion or damage • CONTAMINATION The presence of microorganism on inanimate objects (clothing, surgical instruments, water, food, milk) or in substances • EXPOSURE: Contact of specific eye, mouth, other mucous membrane, non intact skin, or parenteral with blood or other potentially infectious materials
  4. 4. • INFECTION CONTROL It is a program that is designed to protect personnel against risks of infection exposure • UNIVERAL PRECAUTIONS: All the patients and blood contaminated body fluids are treated as infectious • PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT (PPE): A term used for barriers, such as gloves, gown, or mask • HOUSEKEEPING: A term that relates to cleanup of treatment-soiled operatory equipment, instruments, counters, and floors, as well as to management of used gowns and waste
  5. 5. • STERILIZATION: Use of a physical or chemical procedure to destroy all microorganisms including resistant bacterial spores Sterilization means the destruction of all life forms • STERILE: An article free from all living microorganisms; usually described as a probability (e.g., the probability of a surviving microorganism being 1 in 1 million)
  6. 6. • DISINFECTION: Disinfection is a process of removing or killing most, but not all, viable organisms Disinfection refers to the destruction of pathogenic organisms • DISINFECTANT: A chemical agent used on inanimate objects to destroy virtually all recognized pathogenic microorganisms, but not necessarily all microbial forms (e.g., bacterial endospores)
  7. 7. Leading Causes of Death
  8. 8. Chain of Infection
  9. 9. INFECTION CONTROL PRECAUTIONS • Standard Precautions • Airborne Precautions • Universal Precautions • Barrier Nursing
  10. 10. MODES OF TRANSMISSION • Direct contact with blood or body fluids • Indirect contact with a contaminated instrument or surface • Contact of mucosa of the eyes, nose or mouth with droplets • Inhalation of airborne microorganisms
  11. 11. MAIN SOURCES OF INFECTION • Person to person via hands of HCWs, patients, and visitors • Hospital staff who are carriers • Personal clothing and equipment (stethoscopes, flashlights etc) • Environmental contamination • Airborne transmission
  12. 12. TRANSMISSION OF INFECTION 1. Source of infection – may be a patient or a member of the HCWs who is suffering from, or is a carrier of, an infectious disease 2. Means of transmission – Microorganisms capable of causing disease are present in human blood and saliva, contact with blood or saliva may transmit such pathogenic organisms causing infection 3. Route of transmission – Transmission may occur due to inhalation or inoculation 4. Susceptible host – Is a person who lacks effective resistance to a particular microorganism. e.g immune-compromised patients, pregnant women and children
  13. 13. ROUTES OF TRANSMISSION • Contact Transmission • Direct • Indirect • Droplet Transmission • Airborne Transmission • Vector-borne Transmission
  14. 14. PORTALS OF ENTRY
  15. 15. 1. PATIENTS: • Lower resistance to infectious microorganisms (due to illness or disease) • Exposure to an increased number of and more types of disease-causing organisms (Hospital harbors a high population of virulent strains of microorganisms that are resistant to antibiotics) MRSA, VRE – super bugs • The performance of invasive procedures (IV catheters etc.. Anything that crosses protective barriers)
  16. 16. 2. Attendants • The relationship of hospital infections with an increased number of attendants/visitors is beyond doubt • They become the carriers of infection putting both at risk of developing infections i.e. patients and HCWs
  17. 17. 3. Healthcare Workers • Being consistently with the patients while delivering treatment and care, the healthcare team including doctors, nurses and other paramedical staff are at a larger risk to develop infections in the healthcare settings
  18. 18. MAIN NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS
  19. 19. SOURCES OF HAI • Endogenous: Normal flora of the patient- About 50% of NI • Exogenous: • HCWs • Other patients and environment • Inanimate objects- tools, instruments, and materials used • Seeding from distant focus of infection (prosthetic device, implants) • Good infrastructures does not mean a safe environment
  20. 20. OBJECTIVES OF INFECTION CONTROL  To protect the patient and HCWs from contracting infections during procedures  To reduce the numbers of pathogenic micro-organisms in the potential areas to the lowest possible level  To implement a high standard of infection control when treating every patient (universal precautions)  To simplify infection control, thus allowing the HCWs to complete treatment protocols with minimal inconvenience
  21. 21. EFFICACY OF INFECTION CONTROL Following measures will certainly control the infections: • Hand washing • Work culture and attitude of HCWs • Care of inserted devices • Care of equipment used on body, like in respiratory therapy • Effective sterilization and disinfection • Peri-operative antibiotic prophylaxis for contaminated wounds • Proper disposal of hospital waste • Laboratory asepsis
  22. 22. Infection Control Committee • It is a multidisciplinary committee responsible for monitoring and implementation of IC policies and recommend corrective actions • It establishes standards for patient care, it reviews and assesses IC reports and identifies areas of intervention • It includes representatives from different concerned hospital departments and management • The ICC reports directly to the top management to promote visibility and effectiveness of policies
  23. 23. Infection Control Committee Objectives: • To develop and review its own IC SOPs • To review and approve surveillance and prevention program • To review epidemiological surveillance data and identify areas for intervention • To ensure appropriate staff training • To ensure availability of appropriate supplies • To ensure safety management
  24. 24. Infection Control is responsibility of ???

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