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Hplc validation sud mpharm

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  • 1. ANALYTICAL METHOD DEVELOPMENTOPTIMISATION AND VALIDATION OF HPLC Sudheer kumar kamarapu Assistant professor Sri Shivani college of pharmacy
  • 2. INTRODUCTION 2
  • 3. • The drug or drug combination may not be official in any pharmacopoeias.• A proper analytical procedure for the drug may not be available in the literature due to the patent regulations.• Analytical procedures may not be available for the drug in the form of a formulation due to the interference caused by the formulation excipients.• Analytical methods for the quantisation of the drug in the biological fluids may not be available.• Analytical methods for a drug in combination with other drugs may not be available.• The existing analytical procedures may require expensive reagents and solvents.• The existing analytical procedures involve cumbersome extraction and separation procedures and these may not be reliable. 3
  • 4. • As simple as possible.• Most specific.• Most productive economical and convenient.• As accurate precise as required.• Multiple source of key components(reagents,columns,TLC plates) should be avoided.• To be fully optimized before transfer for validation of characteristics such as accuracy,precision,sensitivity, ruggedness etc. 4
  • 5. STEPS IN HPLC METHOD DEVELOPMENT 5
  • 6. Information on sample, define separation goals.Need for special HPLC procedure, sample pretreatment..etc.. Choose detector Choose LC method ; preliminary run; estimate best separation conditions Optimize separation conditions. 6
  • 7. Check for problems orrequirement for special procedure Validate method for release to routine laboratory. 7
  • 8. Important information concerningsample composition and properties: Number of compounds present. Chemical structures (functionality) of compounds. Molecular weights of compounds. Pka values of compounds. UV spectra of compounds. Concentration range of compounds in samples of interest. Sample solubility. 8
  • 9. SEPARATION GOALS Is the primary goal quantitative analysis ,the detection of an substance, the characterization of unknown sample components or the isolation of purified material ? Is it necessary to resolve all sample components? If quantitative analysis is requested , what levels of accuracy and precision are required For how many different sample matrices should the method be designed How many samples will be analyzed at one time What HPLC equipment and operator skills are present in the laboratory that will use the final method ? 9
  • 10. SAMPLE PRE TREATMENT AND DETECTIONSamples come in various forms:• Solutions ready for injection.• Solutions that require dilution, buffering, addition of aninternal standard, or other volumetric manipulation.• Solids that must first be dissolved or extracted.• Samples that require sample pretreatment to remove interferences and/or protect the column or equipmentfrom damage. 10
  • 11. SAMPLE PRETREATMENT• Removal of insoluble material Filteration Centrifuge• Control of concentration Dilution• Extraction Liquid phase extraction Solid phase extraction• Derivatization for detection 11
  • 12. Selection of detectors• UV-VIS Ultraviolet/ visible detector• PDA Photodiode Array Detector• RF Fluorescence detector• CDD Conductivity detector• RID Refractive index detector• ECD Electrochemical detector• ELSD Evaporative light scattering detector• MS Mass spectrometer detector 12
  • 13. DEVELOPING THE SEPARATION Ref:Practical HPLC method development 13 2nd edition by Lioyd R.Snyder Chapter 1
  • 14. Improving The Separation Ref:Practical HPLC method development 14 2nd edition by Lioyd R.Snyder Chapter 1
  • 15. Checking for problems Problem CommentLow plate numbers Poor choice of columnColumn variability Poor choice of columnShort column life Poor choice of column, need for sample pretreatmentRetention shift Insufficient column equilibrium, need for sample pretreatment, loss of bonded phasePoor quantitative precision Need for better calibration, identification of sources of errorNew interference peaks discovered Initial inadequate or initial samples not representative. Ref:Practical HPLC method development 15 2nd edition by Lioyd R.Snyder Chapter 1
  • 16. METHOD OPTIMIZATIONOptimization of a separation is principally directed by the followinggoals:• To separate better (higher resolution),• To separate faster (shorter retention time),• To see more (lower detection limit),• To separate at lower cost (economic effort),• To separate more (higher throughput).Optimization of a method can follow either of two generalapproaches:• Manual .• Computer driven. 16
  • 17. The various parameters that include to be optimized during method development are :• Mode of separation .• Selection of stationary phase .• Selection of mobile phase.• Selection of detector .Mode of separation: For the separation of polar or moderately polar compounds, the most preferred mode is reverse phase 17
  • 18. Selection of stationary phase/column:The appropriate choice of separation column includes different approaches:• The particle size and the nature of the column packing.• The physical parameters of the column i.e. the length and the diameter.Selection of mobile phase :The following are the parameters, which shall be taken into consideration while selecting and optimizing the mobile phase:• Buffer and its strength: The retention times are depend on the molar strengths of the buffer – Molar strength is increasingly proportional to retention times. 18
  • 19. • pH : It is important to maintain the pH of the mobile phase in the range of 2.0 to 8.0 as most columns does not withstand to the pH which are outside this range.• Mobile phase composition:• Experiments were conducted with mobile phases having buffers with different pH and different organic phases to check for the best separations between the impurities.• A mobile phase which gives separation of all the impurities and degradants from each other and from analyte peak should be preferred 19
  • 20. Selection of detector:The characteristics that are to be fulfilled by a detector to be used in HPLC determination are:• High sensitivity, facilitating trace analysis• Negligible baseline noise. To facilitate lower detection• Large linear dynamic range• Non destructive to sample• Inexpensive to purchase and operate 20
  • 21. VALIDATION OF HPLC METHOD 21
  • 22. VALIDATION, USP:“Validation of an analytical procedure is the process by whichit is established, by laboratory studies, that the performancecharacteristics of the procedure meet the requirements forthe intended analytical applications.” 22
  • 23. Basic Parameters for the Validationof Method: Specificity Linearity Accuracy Method validation Limit of detection Limit of quantification Precision Range Robustness 23 System suitability
  • 24. Validation Characteristics Identificatio Impurities Assay n quantita tive limit Accuracy - + - + Precision - + - + Specificity + + + +Detection Limit - - + - Quantitation - - Limit + - Linearity - + - + Range - + - + Robustness + + + + Ref:Quality assurance of pharmaceuticals(A compendium of guidelines 24 and related materials),volume 1 ,Chapter 4 World Health Organization Geneva
  • 25. Accuracy:• Definition: The accuracy of an analytical procedure expresses the closeness of agreement between the value that is accepted either as a conventional true value or as an accepted reference value and the value found. According to the ICH, accuracy should be determined using a minimum of nine determinations over a minimum of three concentration levels covering the range . Obtained value - Expected value%Error = ----------------------------------------- * 100 Expected value%Error<1% Highly accurate 1 to 5% Moderately accurate>5% Low accurate 25
  • 26. Precision :Definition :The Precision is a measure of the ability of the method togenerate reproducible results. The precision of a method isevaluated for repeatability, intermediate precision andreproducibility. 26
  • 27. Limit of Detection (LOD, DL):The LOD of an analytical procedure is the lowest amount ofanalyte in sample which can be detected but not necessarilyquantitated as an exact value. Determination is usually based on – Signal to noise ratio (~3:1) (baseline noise) or – Standard deviation of response (s) and Slope (S) 3.3 s/S SNR = H/h Where, H = height of the peak corresponding to the component. h = absolute value of the largest noise fluctuation from the baseline of the chromatogram of a blank solution . 27
  • 28. Limit of Quantitation (LOQ, QL) – The LOQ is the lowest amount of analyte in a sample which can be quantitatively determined with suitable precision and accuracy.The quantitation limit is used particularly for the determination of impurities and/or degradation products.Determination is usually based on – Signal to noise ratio (~10:1) (baseline noise) or – Standard deviation of response (s) and Slope (S) 10 s/S - The Quantitation limit of a method is affected by both the detector sensitivity and the accuracy of sample preparation. 28
  • 29. LOD, LOQ and Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) LOQ Signal to Noise = 10:1 Signal to Noise = 3:1 LOD Noise 29
  • 30. Range:ICH Definition:The range of an analytical procedure is the interval between the upper and lower concentrations of analytes in the for which it has been demonstrated that the analytical procedure has a suitable level of precision, accuracy, and linearity. 30
  • 31. Range For Different Tests:• Assay 80 to 120% of test concentration.• Content uniformity 70 to 130% of test concentration• Dissolution Q-20% to 120%• Impurities Reporting level – 120% of specification limit (with respect to test concentration of API)• Assay & Impurities Reporting level to 120% of assay specification 31
  • 32. Linearity: Definition : Linearity of an analytical procedure is its ability(within a given range) to obtain test results which aredirectly proportional to the concentration of analytes in thesample.•If there is a linear relationship test results should be evaluated by appropriate statistical methods like, •Correlation coefficient •Y-intercept •Slope of regression line •Plot of the Data 32
  • 33. Linearity Ranges and Acceptance Criteria for Various Pharmaceutical Methods 33 Ref:Modern HPLC by Michel Dong.
  • 34. SYSTEM SUITABILITY TESTING (SST) System suitability testing (SST) is used to verify resolution, column efficiency, and repeatability of the analysis system to ensure its adequacy for performing the intended application on a daily basis.Which Parameters?? •Number of theoretical plates (efficiency) •Capacity factor, •Separation (relative retention) •Resolution, •Tailing factor •Relative Standard Deviation (Precision) 34 34
  • 35. •Plate number or number of theoretical plates (n)n=L/H, where L is Length of Column H is HETP or height of one theoretical plate•Capacity factor (capacity ratio) k k= (tr-tm) /tm where tr is retention time tm is dead time•Separation Factor (relative retention) α=k1/k2 where k1 is capacity factor of compound a and k2 is capacity factor of compound b•Tailing factor ,T T=W/2f where W is width at 5% at peak height, f is distance between max and leading edge of the peak 35
  • 36. Ref:Modern HPLC by Michel Dong, 36
  • 37. Robustness :Definition :Robustness is reliability of an analytical procedure with respect to deliberate variations in method parameters.•If measurements are susceptible to variations in analytical conditions the analytical conditions should be suitably controlled or a precautionary statement should be included in the procedure. 37
  • 38. PARAMETERS TO BE EVALUATED FOR ROBUSTNESS•Mobile Phase • pH (±0.1–0.2 units) • Buffer concentration (±5–10mM) • Percentage organic modifier (±1–2% MP)•Sample •Injection volume • sample concentration •Column temperature (±5°C) •Detector wavelength (±3nm) 38
  • 39. Selectivity and Specificity :•Selectivity is the ability to measure accurately and specifically the analyte in the presence of components that may be expected to be present in the sample matrix.•Specificity for an assay ensures that the signal measured comes from the substance of interest, and that there is no interference from excipients and/or degradation products and/or impurities. 39
  • 40. REFERENCES1. Modern HPLC by Michel Dong, Chapter 9.2. Analytical Method Validation and Instrument Performance Verification by Herman Lam and Y.C. Lec, Chapter 3 and Chapter 11.3. Practical HPLC method development 2nd edition by Lioyd R.Snyder Chapter 14. Quality assurance of pharmaceuticals(A compendium of guidelines and related materials),volume 1 ,Chapter 4 World Health Organization Geneva 40