Wine and Nutrition Alcohol has 7 kcals/g Fat has 9 kcals/g Protein and Carbohydrates have 4 kcals/g According to the Center for Disease Control, a standard drink is equal to 0.6 oz (14 g) of ethanol 5 oz glass of winehttp://img.webmd.com/dtmcms/live/webmd/consumer_assets/site_images/media/medical/hw/alcohol.jpg
European Diet and Wine French Paradox – the French diet is laden with rich foods high in saturated fat, yet they have low rates of Coronary Heart Disease Sparked research into the possible health benefits of wine because of how much wine the French consume Mediterranean Diet – the Mediterranean diet does not contain as many high saturated fat foods, they do consume wine in moderation There is also a low rate of Coronary Heart Disease in Mediterranean countries The Mediterranean Diet is a heart healthy model
Health Benefits from Wine In moderation, red wine has been shown to have health benefits According to the CDC, moderate drinking is 1 standard drink a day for women and 2 standard drinks for men Health Benefits Raises HDL – good cholesterol ‐ which takes cholesterol from the bloodstream to the liver to be broken down Lowers LDL – bad cholesterol – which can oxidize into plaque in arteries Reduces risks of blood clots Dry red wines, such as Cabernet Sauvignon, have more flavonoids than sweet
Need For Regulation in Europe The need for regulation arose out of three factors Overproduction of Wine Technological innovation after WWII increased yields in grape production which resulted in more wine being made. Demand remained constant and then dropped beginning in the 1970’s. This forced prices to drop. Desire for Higher Quality Further regulation was needed because with the decrease of demand in the 70’s, consumers’ tastes began to change for higher quality wines. Competition with the United States The previous two factors made Europe less able to compete with the US.
European Wine Regulations Addressing Overproduction Cannot plant new vines without planting rights EU regulation stipulates that each country must regulate the amount of grapes harvested each year. Vineyards have to apply with their national governments to receive planting rights. Requirements vary by country. Rights are valid for a certain amount of time, usually 5‐10 years. Vineyards must reapply when their rights expire. Control on the amount the can be harvested per unit area This helps to regulate amount of grapes harvested and increase quality. For example, vineyards in Switzerland can harvest 1.1kg per m2.
European Wine Regulations Quality Requirements for Classification and Labeling Table Wines (TW) According to EU regulations, the table wine classification denotes a wine made with an alcoholic content between 8.5% and 14%. The bottle of this wine must indicate it is a table wine and cannot list a specific region of origin. Quality Wine Produced in a Specific Region (QWspr) QWspr’s are similar to table wines, but come from a very specific region of a country. The specifics of this classification are determined by each country. QWspr labels must indicate that they are a QWspr and can list the specific area of origin.
European Wine Regulation Winemaking Process Definition of Wine in EU Regulation “the product obtained exclusively from the total or partial alcoholic fermentation of fresh grapes, whether or not crushed, or of grape must” Classification determines further characteristics Alcohol Content Acidity Ripeness of Grape at Harvest Chaptalisation Chaptalisation addition of sugars to wine for sweetness or to be further fermented into alcohol. Sweetness Presence of SO2 SO2 helps to prevent excessive oxidation to vinegar.
Italian Appellation Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Classification Vino da Tavola (VDT) Fits in to the table wine classification in EU regulation Only includes red, white, and rosé wines. 51% of the grapes used in the wine must come from Italy Label can indicate varieties used but not location of origin Indicazione Geografica Tipica (IGT) Lowest quality QWspr of Italy Label most include variety of grapes used, name of winery, and address of the winery.
Italian Appellation Denominazione di Origine Controllata (DOC) Middle quality of QWspr wine in Italy Has the same requirements as an IGT appellation plus There is a maximum number of vines that can be grown in that appellation region that can be used to make the wine No irrigation system can be used on the grapes There is a maximum amount of the wine that can be produced a year Denominazione di Origine Controllata e Garantita (DOCG) Highest quality of Qwspr wine in Italy Has the same requirements as a DOC appellation plus Comes with a governmental guarantee of quality Must be chemically tested and professionally tasted to ensure the wines quality Must be bottled within the appellation region
Cultural Overview Three main areas of consumption Traditions and Habits Their shifting contemporary nature Macro influence Social issues Economics
Areas of Consumption 57% of world consumption Private Familial Social Public Social Professional
Age Limits France 18 Raised from 16 in 2006 Consumption in private residence is legal Italy 16 Germany 16 for beer and wine 18 for spirits Britain
Old Traditions French and Italian – wine with meals Italy: glass w/ breakfast, bottle for lunch French: wine for dinner Older demographic Trend is shifting Anglo‐Saxon eating habits Non‐meal drinking
New Habits “Lack” of youth culture/Globalization Homogenization of alcohol ‘belts’ Britain and Germany rising Marketing targeting youth Introduction of ‘Alco‐pop’ Social differences Location of consumption Increase in binge habits Affordability gap Education discontinuity
Social Implications Shifting due to modern marketing Primarily advertise everything but wine Predominant image of drinking Increased risk of death 3rd leading cause 1 in 4 deaths among young men 1 in 3 road traffic fatalities European Millennials mimic Anglo‐Saxon peers Americans and British are consuming more wine French and German youth are expected to follow Drastically expanded global market
Time for the Wine Tasting Now on to the part you all have been waiting for…
Wine Tasting – Step 1 Tilt the glass over a white surface and look at the color nearest the top of the glass. This is the true color of the wine, so you can determine how aged the wine is.
Wine Tasting ‐Step 2 Smell the wine while it is still and take note of the aromas. Subjective – no right or wrong answers
Wine Tasting – Step 3 Swirl the wine around the glass. The swirling process mixes oxygen through the wine, expands the surface area, and allows the aromas to open up.
Wine Tasting – Step 4 Take note of the smells again – should be stronger. The aroma of the wine is considered to be the average of the two.
Wine Tasting – Step 5 Take a sip of the wine & cover the entire area of your tongue. Try to discover & identify all the flavors in the wine, however strong or weak they appear. Top of tongue: sweetness Sides of tongue: acidity Back of tongue: bitterness
Wine Tasting – Step 6 After swallowing, take note of the “finish” and “length.” A pleasing finish and a long length are desired. The longer the length, the higher the alcohol concentration of the wine. At least ten seconds is best.
Wine Tasting ‐ Overview Remember the 5 S’s See Sniff Swirl Sniff Sip
Wine Pairing “Wine is made for food.” Acidity Salt Wine tastes fruitier and Wine tastes fruitier and sweeter, but less acidic richer Sweetness Umami Wine tastes more bitter Wine tastes more bitter and less sweet unless it is and astringent and less sweeter than the food fruity
We got most of our information from: Gialdi‐Brivio Winery tour: a winery in Mendrisio, Switzerland ‐ http://shop.gialdi‐brivio.ch/Welcome.do;jsessionid=4E7C68DD5C44790871BAA10BC4D3E70D Château de Crémat Winery tour: a winery in Nice, France ‐ http://www.chateau‐cremat.com Tuscany Wine School “Wine Express” Class: Florence, Italy ‐ http://www.tuscanwineschool.com/wine_express_tasting_Florence.htm Expovina Primavera wine festival: Zurich, Switzerland ‐ http://www.expovina.ch/neu/index.php?page=willkommen‐primavera Daniela Doninelli, Managing Director of CESA ‐ Center for European Studies and Architecture
Additional Sources: Health: "Alcohol and Public Health." Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 28 Oct. 2011. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/alcohol/faqs.htm>. Staff, Mayo Clinic. "Mediterranean Diet." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research, 19 June 2010. Web. 23 Apr. 2012. <http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/mediterranean‐ diet/CL00011/NSECTIONGROUP=2>. "Alcohol." BBC News. BBC. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/treatments/healthy_living/nutrition/healthy_alcohol .shtml>. "A Glass of Red Wine a Day Keeps the Doctor Away." Red Wine. Yale‐New Haven Hospital. Web. 25 Apr. 2012. <http://www.ynhh.org/about‐us/red_wine.aspx>. de Lorimier, Alfred A. Alcohol, wine, and health. The American journal of surgery 180.5 01 Jan 2000: 357‐361. Paul B. Hoeber. 29 Apr 2012. Wine Regulations: COUNCIL REGULATION (EC) No 479/2008 COMMISSION REGULATION (EC) No 607/2009