2011 Foundation Wine Course 3: Rest of the Old World

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PCC Wine Circle Foundation Wine Course 3
Rest of the Old World (Iberia, Italy & others)

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2011 Foundation Wine Course 3: Rest of the Old World

  1. 1. Foundation Wine Course: III 13 April 2011 Wines of the Rest of the Old World
  2. 2. Oldest ever Winery discovered! <ul><li>Radiocarbon dating of artefacts in cave in Armenia </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A rudimentary wine press </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>clay vat surrounded by grape seeds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>withered grape vines, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>remains of pressed grapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cup and drinking bowl. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>4000-4100 BC </li></ul>
  3. 4. European production levels <ul><li>1 Italy 4,609,554 </li></ul><ul><li>2 France 4,198,632 </li></ul><ul><li>3 Spain 3,591,300 </li></ul><ul><li>9 Germany 1,000,100 </li></ul><ul><li>11 Portugal 562,000 </li></ul><ul><li>12 Romania 554,182 </li></ul><ul><li>13 Russia 503,483 </li></ul><ul><li>14 Greece 400,409 </li></ul><ul><li>16 Hungary 325,000 </li></ul><ul><li>17 Austria 299,372 </li></ul><ul><li>Tonnes </li></ul><ul><li>18 Bulgaria 230,046 </li></ul><ul><li>19 Ukraine 210,500 </li></ul><ul><li>21 Serbia 154,224 </li></ul><ul><li>22 Moldova 138,522 </li></ul><ul><li>24 Macedonia 108,100 </li></ul><ul><li>25 Switzerland 107,447 </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>Lebanon 15,000 </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul><ul><li>UK 1,350 </li></ul><ul><li>(2008 figures from FAO) </li></ul>
  4. 5. Spain, Portugal & Italy <ul><li>In places wine-making predates the French </li></ul><ul><li>Localised consumption patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Use of indigenous grapes (unknown to us!) </li></ul><ul><li>Less choice for British consumers - UK suppliers often have small stocks </li></ul><ul><li>But, recent trend is to meet global market demands in terms of grapes and styles </li></ul>
  5. 6. Quality control <ul><li>Spain, Portugal & Italy follow the French Appellation Controllé system based on guaranteeing geographical origin and quality. </li></ul><ul><li>Each defined area [DO, DOC, DOCG] having specified grapes and regulations, and broadly similar vinification methods. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Classification of Spanish wines <ul><li>Vino de Mesa </li></ul><ul><li>Vino Comarcal – regionally specific </li></ul><ul><li>Vino de la Tierra – Spain's answer to French vin de pays </li></ul><ul><li>Denominacion de Origen (DO) – equivalent to French AC </li></ul><ul><li>Denominacion de Origen e Calificada (DOCa) – only awarded to Rioja </li></ul>
  7. 8. Portugal <ul><li>Vinho de Mesa </li></ul><ul><li>Vinho Regional (VR) – the vin de pays equivalent, but covers entire country </li></ul><ul><li>Indicaçāo de Proveniencia Regulamentada (IPR) </li></ul><ul><li>Denominaçao de Origem Controlada (DOC) </li></ul>
  8. 9. Italian wine classification
  9. 11. Wine 3 Wine 2 Wine 7 Wine 1
  10. 12. Important DO areas <ul><li>La Rioja </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tempranillo grapes: oaky Rioja wines; DOCa </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ribera del Duero </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tempranillo grapes; outstanding and expensive red wines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catalunya – several DOs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Penedes, the home of cava (Condoriu & Freixenet) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Torres family owned business (Vina Sol) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Priorat </li></ul></ul>
  11. 13. Wine 3 Wine 2 Wine 7 Wine 1
  12. 14. Important DO areas <ul><li>Rueda </li></ul><ul><ul><li>White wines: Viura, Verdejo and Sauvignon Blanc </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Navarra </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like neighbouring Rioja, largely robust Tempranillo–based reds; some introduction of Cabernet Sauvignon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Valdepeñas , Jumilla & La Mancha </li></ul><ul><li>Rias Baixas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Albariño </li></ul></ul>
  13. 15. Wine 3 Wine 2 Wine 7 Wine 1
  14. 16. <ul><li>Tasting: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate </li></ul></ul>
  15. 17. Wine 1 <ul><li>Tres Olmos, Verdejo, Rueda DO 2009 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verdejo: A common Spanish white grape variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aromas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Floral/fruity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral/floral/fruity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acidity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ Spanish Sauvignon blanc’ </li></ul></ul>
  16. 18. Haro La Rioja
  17. 20. Marqués de Riscal: Designed by Frank Gehry
  18. 21. The ages of Rioja <ul><li>Joven: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young, purple, little or now barrel ageing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crianza </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aged a year in oak </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reserva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two years in oak and one in bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gran Reserva </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two in oak and two in bottle (minimum) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 22. Wine 2 <ul><li>Muga Reserva, Rioja DOCa 2005 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>70%Tempranillo, 20% Garnacha, 10% Mazuelo and Graciano) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A creation of old vines and new vinification technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Specially selected grapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30 months in oak; 12 months in bottle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aromas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruits? Spices? Leather? Chocolate? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 23. Muga video
  21. 25. Across the border to Portugal <ul><li>Minho : Vinho Verde </li></ul><ul><li>DOC </li></ul><ul><li>Douro : Port DOC </li></ul><ul><li>&robust red still wines </li></ul><ul><li>Beira : Dao DOC </li></ul><ul><li>Set ú bal DOC: Moscatel </li></ul><ul><li>Alentejo DOC: some modern </li></ul><ul><li>vinification and ‘global’ </li></ul><ul><li>grapes like Syrah </li></ul>Wine 7 Wine 3
  22. 26. Wine 3 <ul><li>Altano, Douro DOC 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Symington family estates in Upper Douro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touriga Nacional, Touriga Franca, Tinta Barroca, Tinta Roriz </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aromas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate? </li></ul></ul>
  23. 27. Italy <ul><li>Somewhat anarchic producers and regulations. </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of localised production. </li></ul><ul><li>No 1 producer in the World, some exceptionally fine and diverse wines, huge potential, but </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a lack of focus. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequently a muddled image, excepting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chianti, Soave, Frascati, Prosecco and a few others . </li></ul></ul>
  24. 28. Italy <ul><li>From the </li></ul><ul><li>foothills of </li></ul><ul><li>the Alps to </li></ul><ul><li>Mt Etna </li></ul>Wine 4
  25. 33. Italian wine classification
  26. 34. The Premiership <ul><li>Not specific enough </li></ul><ul><li>geographically </li></ul><ul><li>No ranking within each </li></ul><ul><li>DOCG, cf Bordeaux or </li></ul><ul><li>Burgundy </li></ul>
  27. 35. Pyramid of quality <ul><li>DOCGs 30 </li></ul><ul><li>DOCs 309 </li></ul><ul><li>IGTs 118 (since 1996) </li></ul>
  28. 36. Wine 4 <ul><li>Gianni Brunelli, Brunello di Montalcino, DOCG 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An iconic traditional producer; died in 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sangiovese grapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Montalcino clings to a rocky hilltop in S Tuscany </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warmer than Chianti Classico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 1,500 cases a year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fruit/ spice, leather/chocolate? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  29. 37. Gianni Brunnelli – a larger than life figure
  30. 38. Contrasted reviews <ul><li>Critic 1 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leather, farm and no fruit on the mouth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brick red at the rim, even brown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It's old already, perhaps a reflection of the year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Critic 2 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers of red fruits with good clean finish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tasted a lot better the next day! </li></ul></ul>
  31. 39. Super Tuscans <ul><li>Chianti & Chianti Classico </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geographical definition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only Sangiovese grapes for Red wine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Innovation with Sangiovese, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Shiraz etc blends produce some great wines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only IGT classification, but can be expensive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Known as Super-Tuscans </li></ul></ul>
  32. 40. Video interlude <ul><li>Jancis Robinson in Piedmont (Italy), Ribera del Duero (Spain) & Languedoc (France) </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Indigenous grapes v. Invaders’ </li></ul>
  33. 41. Germany & Austria <ul><li>Completely different classification based on amount of residual sugar in grapes at harvest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tafelwein: Lowest sugar/alcohol; from any region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Landwein </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Qualitätswein: >9% alc; from a single region. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kabinett </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prädikatswein: nothing to be added; increasing sugar levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spätlese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Auslese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Beerenauslese </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ausbruch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trockenbeerenauslese : Botrytised grapes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eiswein & Strohwein ; picked frozen or dried on straw </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 42. Wine 5 <ul><li>Charming Gruner Veltliner, Laurenz V., Qualitätswein 2007 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kamptal region of Austria: cool climate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grüner Veltliner; a third of Austria's entire wine production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aroma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>honey, melon and some herbal/floral characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ripe apple flavours, then crisp acidity with herbal and spicy notes on the mid-palate; finishes with a salted apple flavour </li></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 43. Austrian Qualitätswein
  36. 44. Wine 5 5ine
  37. 45. Wine 6 <ul><li>Chateau Musar, Gaston Hochar, Wine of Lebanon, 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15 miles N of Beirut; 3000 ft up in mountains; founded 1930; discovered Bristol Wine Fair 1979 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsuaut, Carignan , Grenache & Mourvèdre; French style </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colour? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aromas? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palate? </li></ul></ul>
  38. 46. Chateau Musar, Bekaa Valley
  39. 47. Fortified wines <ul><li>Base still wines of any colour/sweetness </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol, grape spirit, local ‘brandy’, eau de vie added before, during or after fermentation – the process of Mutage </li></ul>
  40. 48. Fortification <ul><li>Addition of alcohol to unfermented grape juice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>French Vins de liqueurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pineau des Charantes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early fortification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits/stops fermentation of grape juice and ensures residual sugar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthens alcohol levels to between 16% and 24% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Port </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>French Vin doux naturel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Late fortification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Addition of alcohol after fermentation has ceased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Grape spirit and juice added to dry wine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fino Sherry </li></ul></ul>
  41. 49. Sherry <ul><li>Essential features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three grapes: Moscatel, Palomino & Pedro Ximenez (PX) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oxidised fermentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural yeast creates Flor during fermentation to produce Fino or Oloroso styles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fortification (alcohol and grape spirit) and maturation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fractional blending, sweetening, in soleras </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produces a huge range of styles </li></ul>
  42. 52. Sherry types <ul><li>Fino stock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fino </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manzanilla </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amontillado </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Olorsoso stock </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oloroso </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cream (Pale & Dark) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pedro Ximenez (PX) </li></ul></ul>
  43. 53. Port <ul><li>17 C British addition of alcohol inspired fortification of still wines in Alto Douro </li></ul><ul><li>Poor schistose soil, hot summers and freezing winters </li></ul><ul><li>Touriga Nacional and up to 80 other permitted cultivars </li></ul><ul><li>Originally matured in lodges in town of Vila Nova da Gaia </li></ul>
  44. 54. Types of Port <ul><li>Barrel-aged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tawny </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sweet-medium dry; dessert wines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solera system of blending: 10, 20, 30 & 40 years old </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Bottle-aged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ruby, White, LBV, Vintage & Crusted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Filtered or unfiltered </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LBV 4 years in wood, then bottle and drink </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vintage up to 2 years in wood, many more in bottle </li></ul></ul></ul>
  45. 55. Port production
  46. 60. Wine 7 <ul><li>Taylor’s Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) Port 2003 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Aged to maturity on oak vats (4-6 years) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bottled 2009 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps preserve body and flavour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But can causes cloudiness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20% alcohol </li></ul></ul>
  47. 61. Taylor’s Estates (Quintas)
  48. 62. Today’s wines <ul><li>Tres Olmos, Verdejo, Rueda DO 2009 £7.95 WS </li></ul><ul><li>Altano, Duoro DOC 2007 £5.95 WS </li></ul><ul><li>Muga Reserva, Rioja DOCa 2005 £22.00 * </li></ul><ul><li>Gianni Brunelli, Brunello di Montalcino, DOCG 2003 £30.00 * </li></ul><ul><li>Charming Gruner Veltliner, Laurenz V., Qualitätswein 2007 £14.95 WS </li></ul><ul><li>Chateau Musar, Gaston Hochar, Wine of Lebanon, 2003 £17.99 * </li></ul><ul><li>Taylors Late Bottled Vintage (LBV) Port, 2003 £12.99 * </li></ul><ul><li>* Majestic WS Wine Society </li></ul>
  49. 63. Identification <ul><li>By aroma only, which of today’s wines is this? </li></ul>
  50. 64. Value for money? <ul><li>Which of today's wines offers best value for money? </li></ul>
  51. 65. Next session: IV <ul><li>Wines of the New World </li></ul><ul><li>Wednesday 18 May 2011 at 2.30pm </li></ul>

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