2011 Foundation Wine Course 2: The Wines of France

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PCC Wine Circle
Foundation Wine Course # 2
France

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2011 Foundation Wine Course 2: The Wines of France

  1. 1. Foundation Wine Course: II<br />30 March 2011<br />The Wines of France<br />Copyright © Brian Jamieson<br />
  2. 2. Revision 1: Winemaking<br />White<br />Red<br />
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  7. 7. Revision 2: What is wine?<br />Water 85%<br />Alcohol<br />Ethyl alcohol 12%<br />Glycerol 1% <br />Everything else 1 – 1.5%<br />
  8. 8. Revision 3: Range and diversity <br />Grape variety<br />Environment; French Terroir<br />Climate<br />Soil<br />Husbandry – pruning, training, spraying<br />Harvest – timing and weather<br />Winemaking processes<br />Storing/ageing<br />
  9. 9. Revision 4: Tasting<br />Eyes<br />Nose <br />Mouth<br />Front<br />Sides<br />Back<br />
  10. 10. Aroma Exercise 1<br />Grapefruit<br />2<br />Pear<br />10<br />Liquorice<br />36<br />
  11. 11. Aroma Exercise 2<br />Aroma 29<br />Violet<br />Aroma 15<br />Blackcurrant<br />Aroma 50<br />Hazelnut<br />
  12. 12. World wine production<br />1 Italy 4,609,554 <br />2 France 4,198,632 <br />3 Spain 3,591,300 <br />4 United States 2,250,000 <br />5 China 1,500,000 <br />6 Argentina 1,467,764 <br />7 Australia 1,244,780 <br />8 South Africa 1,026,100 <br />9 Germany 1,000,100 <br />10 Chile 824,642<br />Tonnes (2008)<br />11 Portugal 562,000 <br />12 Romania 554,182 <br />13 Russia 503,483 <br />14 Greece 400,409 <br />15 Brazil 368,300 <br />16 Hungary 325,000 <br />17 Austria 299,372 <br />18 Bulgaria 230,046 <br />19 Ukraine 210,500 <br />20 New Zealand 205,200 <br />21 Serbia 154,224 <br />22 Moldova 138,522 <br />23 Uruguay 109,001 <br />24 Macedonia 108,100 <br />25 Switzerland 107,447<br />
  13. 13. France<br />Overview I<br />Wine producing areas<br />
  14. 14. France<br />Overview II<br />AOC quality wines<br />
  15. 15. Burgundy monoculture<br />
  16. 16. Sparkling wine<br />Getting the CO2 in!<br />Natural sparkle (petillance)<br />La pompebicyclette (carbonated)<br />Cuvée close or Tank method (2ary fermentation in tank) - Prosecco<br />MéthodeChampenoise (2ary fermentation in bottle)<br />MéthodeTraditionelle (outside Champagne)<br /> Cava, Cap Classique, Sekt, Limoux, Spumante<br />
  17. 17. Champagne<br />Vineyards on chalk<br />Nth French Climate marginal for winemaking<br />Makes poor still wine (highly acidic), but good champagne<br />Blend of three permitted grapes<br />Chardonnay (Blanc de Blancs); Pinot Noir & Pinot Meunier<br />Pinot Noir and Pinot Meunier often exceed 70%<br />
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  20. 20. Champagne tasting<br />Jacquart , Brut Tradition, NV<br />Traditional Champagne blend of Chardonnay, (30%) Pinot Noir (45%) & Pinot Meunier (25%)<br />Appearance<br />Nose<br />Mousse – size and length<br />Taste<br />
  21. 21. Visit a Champagne House<br />
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  23. 23. Some (useless?) Champagne facts<br />12,500 separate brands!<br />19,000 small growers own 88% of vineyards, but sell only 29% of champagne.<br />Champagne houses own 12% of vineyards but produce 71% of wine.<br />250 million bubbles in a bottle<br />Who counted?<br />Same Chalk as in North & South Downs of SE England<br />
  24. 24. 2: Les Cascadelles, Pouilly-FuméAOC 2007<br />Sauvignon blanc 100%<br />Compare with New World Sauvignon blanc<br />Acidity?<br />Fruit?<br />Mineral/Vegetal/Fruit on palate?<br />Predominant aroma?<br />
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  27. 27. The Wines of France<br />Some necessary, but possibly boring, stuff!<br />
  28. 28. French wine making<br />Greek/Roman Origins: first vineyards near Aix -en-Provence in the South.<br />Highly regulated industry.<br />A mixed blessing as it: <br />ensures minimum quality standards, <br />but discourages experimentation, innovation and development.<br />At lowest level, grapes treated as just another agricultural commodity, producing basic table wine.<br />
  29. 29. Production<br />Now world’s second largest wine producer<br />Big fall in home consumption, esp. cheaper wines<br />20 % fall in production in last ten years<br />10% increase in exports during same period<br />UK and Germany are biggest customers<br />But, UK now imports more Australian wine than French<br />Historic classifications and reputations still ensure stratospheric prices for the best wines<br />
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  31. 31. National Quality Classification<br />Appellation d’Origine Contrôllé470 (59%)<br />Grape variety<br />Viticulture<br />Harvest and yield<br />Min. alcohol level<br />Vinification<br />Tasting (nominal)<br />Restricting, discourages innovation<br />VDQS33 (1%)<br />Second division<br />Staging post<br />Vin de Pays 153 ( 31%)<br />Since 1973<br />Superior table wines<br />Less regulation<br />Grape variety<br />Vinification<br />Fewer rules encourages innovation<br />Some of the best modern wines<br />Vin de table(10%)<br />The lowest rung<br />Domestic consumption<br />
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  33. 33. Vin de Pays: Regional groupings<br />Vin de Pays d’Oc<br />Roussillon/Langedoc<br />Vin de Pays du Jardin de la France <br />Loire <br />Vin de Pays de ComtéTolosan<br />SW France<br />Vin de Pays du ComtésRhodaniens<br />Rhone<br />Vin de Pays de Méditerranée<br />Provence/Corsica<br />
  34. 34. 2008 Reforms<br />Reduce regulation<br />Simplify main categories<br />In line with EU regulation<br />Make more competitive internationally<br />Encourage grape variety on label<br />
  35. 35. New categories<br />New<br />Vignobles de France (Wines of France)<br />Indication Géographique Protégée (IGP)<br />Appellation d’Origine Protégée (AOP)<br />Replacing<br />Vin de Table<br />Vin de Pays<br />Appellation d’OrigineContrôllé (AOC)<br />
  36. 36. 3. The Society’s Exhibition Morgon, 2005 AOC<br />Morgon: one of 10 Beaujolais Crus – quality wines.<br />Gamay grape producing light fruity wines.<br />Carbonic maceration initiates fermentation.<br />Aroma?<br />Palate<br />
  37. 37. Beaujolais10 Crus Beaujolais Villages Beaujolais Beaujolais Nouveau<br />
  38. 38. Jancis Robinson<br />‘Grapes and Gas’<br />Champagne production<br />Protection of the name<br />Moet & Chandon’s diversification in Spain, USA & Australia<br />28 minutes<br />
  39. 39. 4. Domaine de Valmoissine, Pinot Noir, Louis Latour,Vin de Pays des Coteaux du Verdon 2009 <br />Maison Louis Latour: Producers in Burgundy since 17th Century<br />In 1989 pioneered the production of the Pinot Noir grape in Provence by buying 30 ha (75 acres) of land in the Verdon.<br />In mountains (500m) 70 km N of St Tropez.<br />Burgundianvinification in wood<br />Light-fruity wine, that lacks the earthiness of Red Burgundy. cf New World.<br />Characteristic aroma?<br />. <br />
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  41. 41. 6. Domaine Lucien Barrot et Fils, Chateauneuf-du-Pape , AOC, 2007 <br />Small, but famous, appellation in SthRhone<br />13 grape varieties permitted<br />80% Grenache, 10% Syrah and 10% Cinsault/Mourvedre.<br />A big wine!<br />Complex, herby nose and palate.<br />Predominant aroma?<br />
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  44. 44. Bordeaux wines<br />Reds are blends of:<br />Cabernet Sauvignon<br />Merlot<br />Cabernet Franc<br />Petit verdot<br />Whites largely:<br />Sauvignon blanc, with additions of Semillon and Muscadelle<br />
  45. 45. St Emilion<br />Pomerol<br />Bourg <br />Blaye<br />Medoc<br />Graves<br />Margaux<br />Sauternes<br />Entre-deux-Mers<br />
  46. 46.
  47. 47. Libournais<br />St Emilion<br />2 Premier Grand Cru Classeé A<br />11 Premier Grand Cru Classeé B<br />84 Grand Cru Classeé<br />Pomerol<br /> Ch. Petrus<br />Merlot dominant (60%+)<br />
  48. 48. Gironde 1855 Classification (Red)<br />Premiers Crus<br />Ch. Lafite<br />Ch. Margaux<br />Ch. Latour<br />Ch. Haut-Brion<br />Ch. Mouton-Rothschild (1973)<br />DeuxièmesCrus<br />Ch. Ducru-Beaucaillou<br />Ch. Léoville-Lascase<br />Etc<br />TroisièmesCrus<br />Ch Lagrange<br />Ch. Palmer<br />etc<br />QuatrièmesCrus<br />Ch. Talbot<br />Ch. Cantenac<br />Etc<br />CinquièmesCrus<br />Ch. Batailley<br />Ch. Grand-Puy-Lacoste<br />etc<br />Crus Bourgeois (2000)<br />Exceptionels 9<br />Supérieurs 87<br />Bourgeois 151<br />
  49. 49. 5:Chateau Gloria 2001 St Julien AOC <br />AOC St Julien in the Medoc<br />Cru bourgeois<br />Cabernet Sauvignon (65%) Merlot (25%), with 5% each of Cabernet Franc and Petit Verdot<br />Colour<br />Predominant aroma<br />Palate<br />Tannin<br />Fruit<br />
  50. 50.
  51. 51. Wine Critic (May 2004)<br />Chateau Gloria (St Julien) 2001:<br />Closed on the nose. Full, sweet, less impact than the 2000. Doesn't have the same texture. Plenty of tannin though. Showing very little on this tasting but has potential. Needs six years. 15+/20 (May 2004) <br />
  52. 52. Wine Society: 30 March 2011<br />2001: A delicious vintage to enjoy now!<br />Overshadowed by the much-lauded millennium vintage which preceded it, 2001 proved to be a great year for merlot and the right bank, and, although slightly more challenging on the left bank, it has turned out to be a lovely Claret vintage, and the wines are already delicious.<br />
  53. 53. 7. The Society’s Exhibition Sauternes, 2007 AOC<br />A distinctive appellation 40km SE of Bordeaux.<br />Semillon 80%, Sauvignon Blanc 15%, & Muscadelle.<br />Autumns characterised by misty mornings and sunny days, encouraging Botrytis mould, or Noble rot, which concentrates juice.<br />Elegant, sweet, honeyed, full-bodied with a long life-expectancy. <br />Complex fruity and floral nose and palate.<br />Low yields, labour intensive harvest = expensive wine!<br />Chateau d’Yquem: £500 a bottle for recent vintages!<br />
  54. 54. Botrytis mould<br />‘Noble rot’<br />
  55. 55. Summing-up<br />Three groups of French wine makers:<br />In favoured areas unchanged traditional production of quality wines - Champagne, Bordeaux, Burgundy, Rhone & Loire. Mixture of excellent, good and complacent. Expensive products. All AOC.<br />Outside favoured (AOC) areas:<br />Traditional (peasant) production – little or no innovation. Moderate-poor quality. A dying race. Vin de Table or distillery. Grants for grubbing-up vines.<br />But also enterprising producers elsewhere; experimenting unconventional varieties, modern vinification, imported technology and know-how; flying winemakers. Best Vin de Pays wines.<br />
  56. 56. Today’s wines<br />Champagne Jacquart, Tradition, NVBrut £18.00 *<br />Pouilly-Fume, Les Cascadelles, 2009 AOC £10.99 *<br />The Society’s Exhibition Morgon, 2005 AOC £8.00 WS<br />Domaine de Valmoissine, Pinot Noir, Louis Latour,<br /> Vin de Pays des Coteaux du Verdon 2009 £8.99 * <br />Domaine Lucien Barrot et Fils, Chateauneuf-du-Pape , AOC 2007 £22.00 *<br />Chateau Gloria, St Julien, 2001, AOC £10.00 L <br />The Society’s Exhibition Sauternes, 2007 AOC £20.00 WS<br />* Majestic WS Wine Society L Laytons<br />
  57. 57. Aroma test<br />Which of today’s wines is this?<br />Think of characteristic aromas!<br />
  58. 58. Best value<br />Which of today’s range offers best value?<br />
  59. 59. Next session<br />Wednesday 13 April 2011<br />at 2.30pm<br />Wines of Iberia, Italy, etc <br />

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