Food biotechnology in wine industry


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Food biotechnology in wine industry

  1. 1. WELCOME Food Biotechnology Presentation On Biotechnology In Wine Industry Presented By; G.S Basavaraj
  2. 2. INRODUCTION Wine is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits. The natural chemical balance of grapes lets them ferment without the addition of sugars, acids, enzymes or water. Yeast consumes the sugars in the grapes and converts them into alcohol and carbon dioxide. It is believed that winemaking technology was first developed in Caucasia (currently part Georgia). Italy, France and Spain produced more than 35% of the total world production of grapes. More than 80% of the grapes grown each year are fermented, and the rest are used for fresh consumption or dried for raisins. World wine production has varied from 250 to 330 million hectolitres since 1970, with the production level reaching 282 million hectolitres in 2001. Italy, France, and Spain produce about 50% of the world’s wine. Other major wine producers include the USA, Argentina, South Africa, Germany, Australia, Portugal and Chile.
  3. 3. GRAPE CULTIVARS AND WINE TYPES  Grouping of cultivars based on evolutionary evidence may be obtained using modern techniques such as DNA fingerprinting , RFLP (Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphisms) and AFLP. (Amplified fragment length polymorphisms).  Raisins and grape berries have been typed by microsatellites and Clonal line diversity has been investigated with satellite markers. Many authors have evaluated these markers for cultivar identification and parentage studies Ampelo CAD, a Computer Aided Digitizing system for determining ampelographic measurements is another means of simplifying the identification.  Currently there are four majors groups of grapevine cultivars that include the pure line of Vitis vinifera, the French–American hybrids, the American hybrids (Vitis labrusca), and some interspecific cultivars .
  4. 4. Vitis vinifera Cultivars  The genus Vitis is divided into two distinct subgenera, Vitis and Muscadinia.  Except for V. rotundifolia and V. popenoei, all the rest of the species are members of the largest subgenus Vitis.  The difference between the two genera is in the number of their chromosomes; 38 for Vitis and 40 for Muscadinia. Crossing between species of Vitis and Muscadinia is possible, but often result in non-fertile progenies. Most commercial cultivars belong to the species V. vinifera.  Vitis vinifera cultivars are used to produce both white and red wines. There is room for improving quality attributes of V. vinifera cultivars using Modern techniques such as genetic engineering.
  5. 5. Continue…  Chardonnay is the most prestigious white French cultivar.It also yields one of the finest sparkling wines. Under optimal conditions, chardonnay produces wine with an aroma of apple, peach and melon. The cultivar is susceptible to powdery mildew and bunch rot.  Riesling is Germany’s most appreciated variety, Wines made from these varieties of grapes have the characteristics of a fresh, aromatic, and well aged wine.  Sauvignon Blanc is originally from France. Some clones possess a floral character, but most Sauvignon Blanc wines have the aroma of green peppers. Clusters produce small size berries, resistant to bunch rot and downy mildew. But Sauvignon Blanc is susceptible to powdery mildew and black rot.  Traminer is an aromatic cultivar, It is used to produce dry and sweet white wines.  Savagnin is an France cultivar, is a clone of Traminer with a mild aroma.  Muscat Blanc is mostly used in the production of dessert wines. They also possess high levels of soluble proteins and flavanoids.
  6. 6. Red Cultivars  Cabernet Sauvignon is the most well known red variety, because of its association with Bordeaux, one of Europe’s finest red wine producing areas. The wine has a black currant aroma under favourable conditions. The berries are small, seedy, and acidic, with darkly pigmented tough skin.  Merlot is a red variety grape, similar to Cabernet Sauvignon, which has the advantage of growing in cooler regions and moist soils.  Pinot Noir is a famous French variety from Burgundy, suitable for the production of rosé and sparkling wines.  Barbera ranked third after Sangiovese and Trebbiano in Italy, Because of its high acidity it is often blended with some low acidic cultivars, but can also be used to make fruity wines by itself.  Nebbiolo is basically grown in Northwestern Italy, The wine produced from Nebbiolo is high in tannin and is acidic with a good aging potential but This cultivar is susceptible to powdery mildew and to bunch rot.
  7. 7. French–American Hybrids  French–American hybrids are the second largest group of cultivars and are derived from crosses between V. vinifera and one or more of the following: V. riparia, V. rupestris, and V. aestivalis. Primarily developed in France, their expansion was banned in the European Economic Community (EEC) in the late 1950s, because of their high yield and their non-traditional fragrance.  Baco Noir resulting from a cross between Folle Blanche and V. riparia, yields wine with a specific flavor and a very good aging potential.  Marechal Foch derived from a cross between V. riparia and V. rupestris , This hybrid has characteristics such as early maturation, winter hardiness, high productivity, and resistance to downy mildew.  Vidal Blanc has excellent winemaking properties, making it suitable for the production of high quality ice wines.
  8. 8. American Hybrids  Most important American hybrids are derived from V. labrusca. The major characteristics of American hybrids are low sugar content and high acidity, and abundant flavor.  The group of American hybrids derived from V. rotundifolia have low sugar content, but are resistant to indigenous diseases, especially to Pierce’s disease.  American hybrids are extensively grown in Eastern North America, South America, Eastern Europe and Asia.
  9. 9. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF WINE GRAPES  Standard breeding techniques are time consuming and expensive. Genetic engineering introduces the genes of choice without destroying the specific characteristics of cultivars.  The steps involved in genetic engineering include the isolation, amplification, and insertion of the target gene into the intended organism.  An example is the insertion of a protein Coat gene for the grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV) into rootstock varieties in order to enhance their resistance.  There are several laboratories around the world working on gene transfer technologies in grape vines.
  10. 10. Clonal Selection  Clones are forms of cultivars, derived vegetatively from a single parental plant, such that all derivatives are initially genetically identical.  Basically, cuttings are multiplied and repeatedly assessed for their viticultural and fruit-bearing characteristics and their resistance to systemic pathogens.  Clonal selection is the primary means by which cultivar characteristics can be modified without significantly changing its specific attributes.  The main objective of clonal selection is the elimination of all systemic infectious organisms including pathogens.  In order to control the desirable variations, some breeders suggest planting several clones rather than just one. There is no unanimous criterion for quality. However, some parameters such as º Brix, pH, and acidity are used to assess maturity. Parameters such as the level of glycosyl glucose, the polyphenol content, and the color density are commonly used as potential indicators of wine quality
  11. 11. Somaclonal Selection  Mutations can be created by exposing meristematic tissue to mutagenic chemicals or radiation. Somaclonal selection enhances the expression and selection of clonal variation.  It also involves the selective growth enhancement of cell lines. For example, isolation of transgenic vines or lines possessing tolerance for salinity or fungal toxins is done by exposing cells to mutagenic agents, such as chemicals and radiation, during cell culture.
  12. 12. GENETIC ENGINEERING OF YEAST FOR FERMENTATION  The two main organisms involved in fermentation are Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Leuconostoc oenos. Traditionally, indigenous yeasts conduct the fermentation. The reason for using specific yeasts is to avoid the production of off flavors sometimes associated with wild yeasts.  New techniques such as mitochondrial DNA Sequencing and gene marker analysis allow identification of strains responsible for fermentation.  Kloeckera apiculata is the most frequently isolated wild yeast in grapes, believed to contribute greatly to the complexity of the wine.  Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important yeast species, because it may function as wine yeast, baker’s yeast, distiller’s yeast, and brewer’s yeast.
  13. 13. Continue…  Saccharomyces paradoxus isolated from oak tree exudates, is assumed to be the ancestral form of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  Saccharomyces species such as S. uvarum and S. bayanus also can effectively conduct fermentations and they are used in special applications; e.g., S. uvarum ferments well at temperatures down to 6°C and synthesizes desirable sensory components, whereas S. bayanus is well adapted for the production of sparkling wines.  Other wild yeasts of sensory significance are: 1. Candida stellata persists in fermenting juice and produces high concentrations of glycerol increasing the mouth feel of wine. 2. Torulopsis delbruekii positively influences sensory attributes of wine by producing low concentrations of acetic acid and succinic acid. 3. S. cerevisiae possess a wide range of winemaking characteristics such as: (a)low production of acetic acid and hydrogen sulphide (b) Ability to ferment glucose (c) Fermentation at high pressure and at low temperature and (d) Its ability to flocculate rapidly and completely after fermentation.
  14. 14. Major characteristics to an ideal yeast for wine making  Fermentation speed  Alcohol tolerance  So2 tolerance: An ideal type of yeast should be able to dominate the fermentation even at this 70 ppm level of SO2 in free state.  Cold tolerance : fermentation below 14ᵒc.  Low foaming activity  Efficient conversion of sugar into alcohol  Production of desirable metabolites  Low production of undesirable metabolites: Such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid, sulphur dioxide and hydrogen sulphide.  Resistance to “Killer” yeasts  Flocculation: An ideal yeast strain should flocculate at the end of the fermentation, leaving the wine clear and requiring less rigorous filtration
  15. 15. Wine as functional food  Polyphenols: The most abundant antioxidants in our diets are polyphenols. Antioxidants protect against cellular damage caused by free radicals in the body. Cellular damage caused by free radicals can lead to development of diseases like heart disease and cancer.  Resveratrol: In the past few years increasing attention has been focused on resveratrol, which is found in high amounts in grape skins and red wines. Resveratrol is a phytoalexin, a type of antibiotic compound and acts as Potential breast cancer protection, Potential skin cancer protection and also provides protection against CVD(Cardio vascular disease).