The Process of Making Wine and Champagne


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In this slideshow you will learn how grapes go from being in a vineyard to becoming that seductive beverage love all over the world. We will also share the secret, how the bubbly gets its bubbles in the process of making Champagne.

The Process of Making Wine and Champagne

  1. 1. The Process of Making<br />Wine and Champagne<br />
  2. 2. Is this what you think?<br />
  3. 3. Weekly Schedule<br />Week 3- The process of making wine and champagne <br />Week 4- Understanding France (Burgundy and Bordeaux) <br />Week 5- Discovering the treasured wines of Italy <br />Week 6- Wine and food pairing<br />
  4. 4. Review From Last Week<br />How to buy wine.<br />What not to do when buying wine.<br />What does Estate Bottled mean on a wine label?<br />What is an appellation? Examples?<br />Which countries have the DOC laws? <br />What does Crianza mean on a Spanish wine Label?<br />Two helpful facts when reading a wine list.<br />
  5. 5. Making Wine<br />
  6. 6. History <br />Wine has been around for over 5,000 years, the first mention of wine in history is in the Bible with Noah; when he planted a vineyard at the base of Mt Ararat. <br />We know of wine from ancient Greece and the myths of Dionysus, also known as Bacchus. He was the god of wine and winemaking.<br />In Medieval Europe, the Christian Church became a staunch supporter of wine because it was necessary for the celebration of the Catholic Mass. The Benedictine Monks became one of the largest producers of wine in France and Germany. The monks made it into an industry, producing enough wine to shipthroughoutEurope for secular use.<br />Until World War II, most wines were made according to two classic methods, one for white wine and one for red.<br />In the 1960’s the art of winemaking became more advanced with equipment- especially temperature controlled tanks; Which gave winemakers a greater ability to sculpt a wine’s aromas and flavors. <br />
  7. 7. Where we Begin<br />Most vineyards will be planted on a slope. Grapes do not like standing water, their roots will rot.<br />Grapes thatare stressed during the growing and maturing process; willproduce the finest fruit.<br />A standard wine field will be trellised, grapes are a vine and want to grow upon something. In the wild this would be a tree in a cultivated field this is a trellis.<br />
  8. 8. Red Wine Process<br />Grapes are harvested in the fall<br />Grapes are crushed; stems are removed (or not)<br />Crushed grapes, juice, skins and seeds are put into a tank<br />Yeast is added, if the winemaker is not relying on ambient yeast.<br />Grapes go through fermentation (this is where red wine gets its color and tannin)<br />Cap of skins are pushed down or pumped over (every morning and evening until fermentation is complete; two weeks)<br />
  9. 9. Red Wine<br />When fermentation is complete, wine is pressed off the skins<br />Wine is pumped into barrels to age<br />Wine is periodically racked<br />Wine is blended<br />Wine is fined and filtered<br />Wine is bottled<br />
  10. 10. Crushing Grapes<br />Stem remover<br />Crushed grapes<br />
  11. 11. White Wine Process<br />Grapes are picked (kept cool)<br />Grapes are pressed; skins and stems are removed; juice is put into tanks<br />Yeast is added if the winemaker is not relying on ambient yeast<br />Fermentation of juice begins (two or more weeks)<br />Wine is left to sit in contact with lees (or not)<br />Wine is racked off the lees<br />
  12. 12. White Wine<br />Wine is possibly cold stabilized<br />Wine is put into barrels to age or it stays in stainless steel tanks<br />Wine is blended<br />Wine is fined and or filtered<br />Wine is bottled<br />
  13. 13. The Fermentation Process<br />Once the grapes are crushed and put into tanks the winemaker may choose to use cultured yeast to control the fermentation process; this can take between one to two weeks. <br />Fermentation is a furious chemical reaction, during which carbon dioxide gas and heat are thrown off. As the yeast begins to convert the grapes sugar into alcohol, carbon dioxide bubbles up from the mass and pushes the skins to the surface. The winemaker does not want the skins to stay on top; the dense cap of skins is critical to the eventual character of the wine.<br />The skins contain the wine’s color, tannin, as well has compounds that become the aromas and flavors. The more contact the juice can have with the skins the more flavors that can be extracted.<br />Punch downs and pump- over's are critical for circulation of skin mass.<br />Once the sugar has become alcohol, the wine is considered dry, and is then pressed.<br />
  14. 14. Fermentation<br />The cap<br />Punch downs<br />
  15. 15. Lees<br />Lees refers to deposits of dead yeast or residual yeast and other particles that precipitate, or are carried by the action of "fining", to the bottom of a vat of wine after fermentation and ageing.<br />In the case of great Chardonnay, such as Montrachet, this adds a toasty, nutty "hazelnut" quality and additional depth and complexity, especially on the finish. <br />
  16. 16. Barreling and Racking<br />Once the wine is pressed it will be pumped into tanks or barrels.<br />An important part of barrel ageing is the racking of the wine. Racking is the process of allowing solids to settle to the bottom of the barrel and drawing off the clear wine. This may take place numerous times.<br />A secondary fermentation takes place within the barrel, called malolactic fermentation. This happens very slowly, taking 3-6 months and is the result of cloudy wine becoming clear and harsh tannins becoming softer.<br />In Malolatic fermentation, tart malic acid (acid in green apples) is converted into softer lactic acid (acid in milk) making the wine softer.<br />
  17. 17. Blending and Fining<br />Blending is when a winemaker will take multiple batches of wine and blend them together to get the desired taste; before bottling.<br />These adjustments can be as simple as adjusting acid or tannin levels, to as complex as blending different varieties or vintages to achieve a consistent taste.<br />Fining agents are used during winemaking to remove tannins, reduce astringency, and remove microscopic particles that cloud the wines. As it clarifies the wine, the sediment forms on the bottom of the barrel, which is removed by filtration prior to bottling.<br />Gelatin has been used in winemaking for centuries and is recognized as a traditional method for wine fining, or clarifying. It is also the most commonly used agent to reduce the tannin content. Egg- whites are also commonly used in the fining process.<br />
  18. 18. Filtration and Bottling<br />Filtering accomplishes two things. In clarification, large particles that affect the visual appearance of the wine are removed and organisms that affect the stability of the wine are removed therefore reducing the likelihood of re-fermentation or spoilage.<br />In bottling, a final dose of sulfite is added to help preserve the wine and prevent unwanted fermentation in the bottle. <br />The wine bottles then are traditionally sealed with a cork, although alternative wine closures such as synthetic corks and screwcaps are less subject to cork taint, and are becoming increasingly more popular. <br />The final step is adding a capsule to the top of the bottle which is then heated for a tight seal.<br />
  19. 19. Oak<br />Heating the wood<br />Oak is what gives a wine its flavors of vanilla, tea, toastiness, and tobacco.<br />Most usedare; American oak, French oak, and Hungarian oak.<br />A winemaker may choose to use new oak, used oak, or a combination of new and used to extract a desired flavor. <br />Barrels cost $500-700 per barrel<br />
  20. 20. Champagne<br />Its said that Marilyn Monroe once took a bath in 350 bottles of Champagne.<br />What makes champagne an elegant favorite, loved by all that try it?<br />Where does it come from?<br />How does it become carbonated?<br />
  21. 21. Champagne<br />True Champagne comes from only one region, called Champagne in France about 90 miles NE from Paris. Everything not from Champagne is know as, Sparkling Wine.<br />Champagne can use only three grapes; Chardonnay, Pinot Meunier, and Pinot Noir.<br />What makes champagnes crisp and elegant,are theclimate and soil. It’s the coldest wine region, making it a hard place to grow grapes that is why the grapes are trellised close to the ground for warmth. The soft and porous chalky soil encourages the roots of the grapes to delve deeply into the earth in search of water. Grapes grown in poor soil make for better wine then those that grow in rich soil.<br />The vineyards of Champagne are not owned by the 110 houses but rather by the 15,000 growers who have long standing contracts with the Champagne Houses. Growers may sell their grapes to 20 different houses to be made into 20 different labels <br />A Champagne house may use 30-60 different lots of grapes to make one Champagne. This is done to achieve the winemaker's desired taste as well has keeping it consistent from the year before.<br />Champagne may be blended from 10 different vintages to achieve a taste of depth and richness. <br />
  22. 22. Region of Champagne<br />Grapes trellised low<br />Chalk soil<br />
  23. 23. How it’s Made<br />The beginning process of making Champagne is similar to white wine, until the second fermentation.<br />In the spring, after the harvest, the winemaker will go to work on making this years blend, by blending dozens of wines from different years. This is called assemblage.<br />Next, the blend will be mixed with yeast, plus a combination of sugar and wine, bottled and capped. What happens next is the magic. <br />The yeast eats the sugar, this is our second fermentation. Withthe bottles being capped there is now here for the carbon dioxide gas to go, this is where the “bubbly” comes from.<br />The bottles rest in the cellar for at least a year on the lees. This is where its said, “The complexity and texture of Champagne originates”.<br />
  24. 24. How its Made<br />If we were to open the bottle now, the Champagne would seem cloudy, and gritty, with the yeast, still present.<br />To remove the yeast from the bottles they are placed into an A-frame machine called a pupitres. Each day the bottles are riddled/ turned slightly and upended a fraction. This used to be practiced by hand, now it’s done by machine. <br />Once all of the yeast is in the neck of the bottle, a practice called degorgementtakes place. Each bottle while still upside down the wine bottle is placed in a brine solution which freezes the entire neck and its content. The bottle is then, quickly turned upright and the cap removed. This allows the yeast plug to shoot out. <br />What remains is a clean wine which is then topped off with the reserved wine and sugar. The reserved wine or the dosage is what will determine how dry or how sweet the Champagne will be.<br />
  25. 25. Categories of Champagne<br />Extra Brut- Very, very dry 0-0.6% sugar<br />Brut- Very dry less then 1.5% sugar<br />Extra Dry- Off-dry 1.2-2% sugar<br />Sec-Lightly sweet 1.7-3.5% sugar<br />Demi-Sec-Sweet 3.3- 5% sugar<br />Doux- Very sweet more then 5% sugar<br />
  26. 26. Riddled<br />By Hand<br />By Machine<br />
  27. 27. Types of Champagne<br />Prestige cuvée- Grapes come from the greatest vineyards, historically rated 100%. Most prestige cruvee Champagnes do not have Pinot Meunier in the blend; they consist of Chardonnay and Pinot Noir. The common practice for aging is 4-7 years before the Champagne hits the retail shelves. Famous examples include: Cristal, Moët & Chandon, Dom Pérignon, and Pol Roger.<br />Blanc de noirs-A French term (literally "white of blacks") for a white wine produced entirely from black grapes (red grapes). Red, grapes have a white flesh and grape juice obtained after minimal possible contact with the skins produces white wine, the colors of which is offset by the small amount of red skin pigments and turns into lighter shades of yellow.<br />Blanc de blancs- A French term that means "white of whites", and is used to designate Champagnes made exclusively from Chardonnay grapes. <br />Rosé Champagnes- Are produced either by leaving the clear juice of black grapes to macerate on its skins for a brief time (known as the saigneé method) or, more commonly, by adding a small amount of still Pinot Noir red wine to the sparkling wine cuvee.<br />
  28. 28. How do we Determine a Good Champagne<br />Vintage champagne will always be more expensive then nonvintage and contain better quality grapes from vineyards rated 90-100%.<br />How long it is aged, 15 months is good, 3-7 years is excellent.<br />The rapidness of the strand of pearls, which starts at the bottom of the fluted glass.<br />The size of the bubbles- the smaller the higher the quality.<br />When we taste you will be looking for a clean, crispfinish.<br />
  29. 29. Let’s Taste<br />
  30. 30. Tasting Selection<br />NV Monmousseau, Brut <br />NV Champagne, Lallier Champagne, Grande Reserve- Grand Cru, Brut<br />NV PolChampignyDemi-Sec<br />2009 The Wolftrap Viognier, Chenin Blanc, Grenache Blanc<br />2009 TarimaMonastrel<br />
  31. 31. When Tasting Champagne<br />What are the colors of Champagne- coral pink, salmon pink, grey gold, green gold, straw, yellow gold, old gold<br />Are the bubbles- lively, delicate, plentiful, slow<br />What do you smell- vanilla, butter, butterscotch, toasted butter, custard, green apples, tropical fruit, lemon, pineapple, yeast…<br />What do you taste- apple, pear, lemon, lychees, grapefruit, peaches, strawberry, current, dried fruit, raisin, fig, apricot, honey, almond, hazelnut, bread…<br />Was the taste- powerful, intense, solid, smooth, light<br />
  32. 32. Homework<br />Visityour local grocery store and find a Cava or a Prosseco. These are Spain and Italy’s versions of sparkling wine. Normallyinexpensive, and well balanced.<br />If you have not yet obtained a wine journal, get one! Itwillbevery helpful for keeping track of the wines you’ve tasted; observing the notable difference in your pallet over time.<br />