Medical Terminology

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general medical terminology lecture for 1120 Legal and Ethical

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Medical Terminology

  1. 1. 1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Justine Clegg, MS, LM, CPM, LMHC Chair/Professor Emeritus, Miami Dade College Midwifery Program 80 slides total
  2. 2. Using medical terminology <ul><li>Medical terminology is used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conversation with other professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medical charting and documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>professional texts, journal articles </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  3. 3. Using medical terminology <ul><li>Understanding and using medical terminology correctly is essential to a successful midwifery career </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this essential? </li></ul>80 slides total
  4. 4. Medical terminology <ul><li>Each health care specialty has its own terminology and abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Health care professionals become so used to the language of their specialty they forget others don’t understand these terms </li></ul>80 slides total
  5. 5. When not to use medical terminology <ul><li>Medical conditions, diagnoses, treatments and terms should always be explained in lay person’s language when talking to patients, family and community members </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the client’s literacy level and language of origin </li></ul>80 slides total
  6. 6. Building blocks of medical language <ul><li>Medical terms are made up of several parts – elements - that can be combined to make many different words </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the meaning of these elements helps understand many medical terms </li></ul>80 slides total
  7. 7. Building blocks of medical language <ul><li>3 principle elements make up medical terms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. roots and combining forms </li></ul><ul><li>2. prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>3. suffixes </li></ul>80 slides total
  8. 8. Each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining Vowel Suffix
  9. 9. The Root <ul><li>The root is the part of the medical term that gives the main meaning </li></ul><ul><li>It usually refers to a structure and/or function of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Roots are usually Latin or Greek in origin </li></ul><ul><li>All medical terms have at least one root </li></ul>80 slides total
  10. 10. Combining forms <ul><li>Combining forms consist of roots plus a vowel, usually the letter “o” </li></ul><ul><li>In the dictionary, the vowel is separated from the root with a slash mark, example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gastr/o - stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter/o – small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardi/o - heart </li></ul></ul></ul>80 slides total
  11. 11. Combining vowel <ul><li>The letter “o” is called the combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term </li></ul><ul><li>Used if the suffix begins with a consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>Not needed if the suffix begins with a vowel </li></ul>80 slides total
  12. 12. Roots and combining forms <ul><li>There are thousands of roots and combining forms that make up medical language </li></ul><ul><li>You need to learn the roots and combining forms used in general medical terminology and what is specific to maternity care </li></ul>80 slides total
  13. 13. Basic root words <ul><li>Adip/o fat </li></ul><ul><li>Arteri/o artery </li></ul><ul><li>Arthr/o joint </li></ul><ul><li>Axill armpit </li></ul><ul><li>Blephar eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>Bucca cheek </li></ul><ul><li>Cardi/a heart </li></ul><ul><li>Cephal head </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebr/o brain </li></ul>80 slides total
  14. 14. Basic root words <ul><li>Cervic neck </li></ul><ul><li>Cholecyst gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>Col/o large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/o rib </li></ul><ul><li>Crani/o skull </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst/o urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Cyt/o cell </li></ul><ul><li>Derm skin </li></ul><ul><li>Enter small intestine </li></ul>80 slides total
  15. 15. Basic root words <ul><li>Esophag esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastr/o stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Hem/o blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hepat/o liver </li></ul><ul><li>Ren/o, nephr/o kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Lapar abdominal wall </li></ul><ul><li>Laryng/o larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbus loin, lower part of the back </li></ul>80 slides total
  16. 16. Basic root words <ul><li>Myel/o spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>My/o, muculo muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nas/o, rhino nose </li></ul><ul><li>Neur/o nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalm/o, ocul/o eye </li></ul><ul><li>Or/o, stomat/o mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Oste/o bone </li></ul><ul><li>Ot/o ear </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreat/o pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyng/o throat </li></ul>80 slides total
  17. 17. Basic root words <ul><li>Pneum/o, </li></ul><ul><li>pneumon/o lung </li></ul><ul><li>Splen/o spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Thorac/o chest </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Trache/o windpipe, trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Ven/o, phleb/o vein </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebr/o vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>Viv/o life </li></ul>80 slides total
  18. 18. Combining forms <ul><li>The letter “o” is called the combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term, if the suffix begins with a consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>The combining form is always used when linking two roots, even if the second one starts with a vowel. </li></ul>80 slides total
  19. 19. Suffixes <ul><li>Suffixes are word elements that are attached to the end of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning </li></ul><ul><li>All medical terms have a suffix </li></ul>80 slides total
  20. 20. Suffixes <ul><li>Each suffix can be added to many roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>itis = inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appendicitis = inflamed appendix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arthritis = inflamed joint </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  21. 21. Suffixes <ul><li>The combining vowel is used between the root and the suffix when the suffix begins with a consonant: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: cardi + o + megaly = cardiomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>cardiomegaly = enlarged heart </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardi = heart, megaly = enlarged </li></ul></ul></ul>80 slides total
  22. 22. Suffixes <ul><li>When the suffix begins with a vowel, there is no need for a combining vowel between the root and the suffix </li></ul><ul><li>The suffix is attached to the root word </li></ul><ul><li>Example: gastr + itis = gastritis </li></ul><ul><li>gastritis = inflammation of the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>gastr = stomach, </li></ul><ul><li>itis = inflammation </li></ul>80 slides total
  23. 23. Suffixes <ul><li>Some common meanings of suffixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological (disease) conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertaining to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembling </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  24. 24. Suffixes <ul><li>When suffixes are listed in medical dictionaries or word lists, they are listed alphabetically </li></ul><ul><li>The word is preceded by a dash and identified as a word element </li></ul><ul><li>The dash indicates something precedes it </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary entries will give the language of origin, usually Latin or Greek </li></ul>80 slides total
  25. 25. Common suffixes <ul><li>Pertaining to: </li></ul><ul><li>-ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ose, -ous, -tic </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac (pertaining to the heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular (pertaining to the cell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotic (pertaining to psychosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporeal (pertaining to the body) </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  26. 26. Common suffixes <ul><li>-algia pain </li></ul><ul><li>-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid </li></ul><ul><li>-cide to kill, destroy </li></ul><ul><li>-cyte cell </li></ul><ul><li>-ectomy removal of </li></ul><ul><li>-emia blood </li></ul><ul><li>-gram record </li></ul>80 slides total
  27. 27. Common suffixes <ul><li>-graph instrument used to record </li></ul><ul><li>-graphy process of recording </li></ul><ul><li>-ia, - a condition, esp. an abnormal state </li></ul><ul><li>-ism condition </li></ul><ul><li>-itis inflammation of </li></ul><ul><li>-lithiasis presence of or formation of stones </li></ul>80 slides total
  28. 28. Common suffixes <ul><li>-logy study of </li></ul><ul><li>-logist person who studies it </li></ul><ul><li>-megaly enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>-oid resembling </li></ul><ul><li>-oma tumor </li></ul><ul><li>-otomy surgical incision </li></ul><ul><li>-pathy disease </li></ul><ul><li>-plasty surgical repair </li></ul>80 slides total
  29. 29. Common suffixes <ul><li>-plegia paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>-pnea breathing, respiration </li></ul><ul><li>-rrhea drainage, flow </li></ul><ul><li>-scope examination, instrument </li></ul><ul><li>-scopy examination using a scope </li></ul><ul><li>-stasis stoppage </li></ul><ul><li>-stomy surgically create an artificial mouth or stoma </li></ul>80 slides total
  30. 30. Prefixes <ul><li>Prefixes are word elements that are attached to the beginning of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Many (but not all) medical terms have a prefix </li></ul>80 slides total
  31. 31. Prefixes <ul><li>Common meanings of prefixes: Location </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul><ul><li>Negation, absence of </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>80 slides total
  32. 32. Prefixes <ul><li>The same prefixes can be attached to many root words, resulting in thousands of variations </li></ul><ul><li>The prefix “hyper” means “abnormally increased or excessive” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperacid = excessively acidic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactive = abnormally active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension = persistently high blood pressure </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  33. 33. Prefixes <ul><li>Prefixes can dramatically change the meaning of a word </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “systole” means “contraction of the heart” </li></ul><ul><li>The one letter prefix “a” means “without” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A systole” means “ no contractions of the heart” -- Just one letter makes the difference between life and death! </li></ul><ul><li>Correct spelling is critical in health care </li></ul>80 slides total
  34. 34. Prefixes <ul><li>When prefixes are listed in medical dictionaries and word lists, they are located alphabetically followed by a dash and identified as a word element </li></ul><ul><li>Their origin (Latin, Greek) is usually given </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>epi- word element (Gr) meaning over </li></ul><ul><li>poly - word element (Gr) meaning many, much </li></ul>80 slides total
  35. 35. Common prefixes <ul><li>A-/an- without, not </li></ul><ul><li>Anti- against </li></ul><ul><li>Auto- self </li></ul><ul><li>Bi- two, double </li></ul><ul><li>Brady- slow </li></ul><ul><li>Dys- bad, difficult, painful </li></ul><ul><li>Epi- over </li></ul>80 slides total
  36. 36. Common prefixes <ul><li>Eu- good, normal </li></ul><ul><li>Hemi- half </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper- above, excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo- less than, under </li></ul><ul><li>Inter- between </li></ul><ul><li>Intra- within </li></ul><ul><li>Multi- many </li></ul><ul><li>Non- not </li></ul><ul><li>Peri- around </li></ul>80 slides total
  37. 37. Common prefixes <ul><li>Poly- many, much </li></ul><ul><li>Post- after, behind </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- before, in front </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo- false </li></ul><ul><li>Quadri- four </li></ul><ul><li>Semi- half </li></ul><ul><li>Sub- under, below </li></ul><ul><li>Supra- above, over </li></ul><ul><li>Tachy- fast, rapid </li></ul><ul><li>Tri- three </li></ul>80 slides total
  38. 38. Putting it all together <ul><li>Learn the meanings of commonly used word elements and understanding how they combine to make a medical term </li></ul><ul><li>Then you can figure out the meaning of thousands of medical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Think of each word as a combination of building blocks or railroad cars, fitted together to create a precise meaning </li></ul>80 slides total
  39. 39. Putting it all together <ul><li>The medical term is put together like a series of building blocks or train cars </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix + </li></ul><ul><li>Root + </li></ul><ul><li>Combining vowel (if needed) + </li></ul><ul><li>Suffix </li></ul>80 slides total
  40. 40. Putting it all together – linking the components to define the term 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining Vowel Suffix
  41. 41. Putting it all together <ul><li>When you see a new term, break it down into the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Start at the end of the word and work to the left </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and define each element </li></ul><ul><li>As you define each element you will define the medical term </li></ul>80 slides total
  42. 42. Start at the end of the word and work to the left 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining Vowel Suffix
  43. 43. Example: “Echocardiogram” 80 slides total echo cardi o gram
  44. 44. Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right 80 slides total Echo = reflections of sounds Cardi = heart O = connecting vowel Gram = Written, record
  45. 45. Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right 80 slides total Echo = reflections of sounds Cardi = heart O = connecting vowel Gram = Written, record Echocardiogram is defined as a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds
  46. 46. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Echocardiogram </li></ul><ul><li>echo = reflections of sounds </li></ul><ul><li>cardi = heart </li></ul><ul><li>o = connecting vowel </li></ul><ul><li>gram = written, record </li></ul><ul><li>Echocardiogram is a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds </li></ul>80 slides total
  47. 47. Example: “Cytology” 80 slides total No Prefix Cyt o logy
  48. 48. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology </li></ul><ul><li>Cyt (root) = cell </li></ul><ul><li>o = the connecting vowel </li></ul><ul><li>logy = (suffix) study of </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology means study of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>A cytologist is someone who studies cells </li></ul>80 slides total
  49. 49. Example: “Bradycardia” 80 slides total Brady cardi No Connec- ting vowel ia
  50. 50. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Brady = abnormally slow </li></ul><ul><li>no connecting vowel is needed because the prefix ends with a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>cardi = heart </li></ul><ul><li>ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia means a condition of abnormally slow heart </li></ul>80 slides total
  51. 51. Example: “Splenectomy” 80 slides total No prefix splen No Connec- ting vowel ectomy
  52. 52. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Splenectomy </li></ul><ul><li>splen = (root) spleen </li></ul><ul><li>no connecting vowel is needed because the suffix begins with a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>ectomy = (suffix) removal of </li></ul><ul><li>Splenectomy means removal of a spleen </li></ul>80 slides total
  53. 53. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Dys = bad, difficult, painful </li></ul><ul><li>pnea = breathing, respiration </li></ul><ul><li>ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea means an abnormal condition of difficult breathing </li></ul>80 slides total
  54. 54. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Hemocyte </li></ul><ul><li>hem = blood </li></ul><ul><li>o = connecting vowel </li></ul><ul><li>cyte = cell </li></ul><ul><li>Hemocyte is a blood cell </li></ul>80 slides total
  55. 55. Changing the meaning of the term <ul><li>Changing one element modifies the meaning of the term </li></ul>80 slides total
  56. 56. tachy 80 slides total brady cardi No Connec- ting vowel a Bradycardia : a condition of abnormally slow heart Tachycardia: a condition of abnormally fast heart
  57. 57. cardi tachy 80 slides total pne No Connec- ting vowel a Tachycardia : a condition of abnormally fast heart Tachypnea: a condition of abnormally fast breathing
  58. 58. Spelling <ul><li>Correct spelling is critical in health care. </li></ul><ul><li>Misspelled words can lead to diagnostic, medication and treatment errors </li></ul><ul><li>Some words look or sound similar and can be confused </li></ul>80 slides total
  59. 59. Spelling <ul><li>Pay attention to the context to help you figure out the correct meaning of a term </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “The client has a fractured ilium” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ilium = part of the hip bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ileum = part of the intestine </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  60. 60. Singular and plural <ul><li>Because many medical terms come from Greek and Latin words, the plural forms of the words are not made by adding an “s” as in English </li></ul><ul><li>Memorize the guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, memorize the specific words </li></ul>80 slides total
  61. 61. 80 slides total Changing singular to plural If the word ends in Change it to Examples: singular, plural -a -ae vertebra, vertebrae -ex or -ix -ices index, indices -is -es diagnosis, diagnoses -itis -ides arthritis, arthritides -nx -ges phalanx, phalanges -on -a ganglion, ganglia -um -a ovum, ova -us -i alveolus, alveoli
  62. 62. Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>The “soft” pronunciation of the consonant is used when followed by e, i or y </li></ul><ul><li>“ c” sounds like “s” </li></ul><ul><li>cell, circulation, cyst </li></ul><ul><li>“ g” sounds like “j” when followed by e, i or y </li></ul><ul><li>genetic, gingivitis, gestation </li></ul><ul><li>“ ch” sounds like “k” </li></ul><ul><li>chronic, chromium, cholecystitis, psychologist </li></ul>80 slides total
  63. 63. Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>When a word ends in “i” it is pronounced like “eye” as in </li></ul><ul><li>bacilli </li></ul><ul><li>“ x” is pronounced “z” as in </li></ul><ul><li>xylocaine </li></ul><ul><li>xenophobic </li></ul>80 slides total
  64. 64. Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>When “P” is at the beginning of words followed by a consonant: </li></ul><ul><li>“ ph” is pronounced “f” as in </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>“ pn” is pronounced “n” (silent “p”) as in pneumonia, pneumococcus </li></ul><ul><li>“ ps” is pronounced “s” (silent “p”) as in psychotic, </li></ul><ul><li>psychosocial </li></ul><ul><li>psychologist </li></ul>80 slides total
  65. 65. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Medical abbreviations and symbols are a “short hand” for medical professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Most have been standardized and are universally accepted </li></ul>80 slides total
  66. 66. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Individual facilities and specialties may use their own specific abbreviations and symbols or use a symbol differently </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Means “change” </li></ul><ul><li>In maternity care it is also used to mean “trimester” </li></ul>80 slides total
  67. 67. The context indicates the meaning <ul><li>Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o 1 st bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o constipation. Recommend her PNV Rx @ her next PNV. </li></ul>80 slides total
  68. 68. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Don’t assume you know what an abbreviation or symbol means. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the abbreviations and symbols used on your clinical site during orientation to the practice, through chart review, and by asking. </li></ul>80 slides total
  69. 69. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Don’t use your own personal abbreviations in health care documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only standard medically accepted abbreviations and those used by the facility on your clinical site </li></ul><ul><li>Use capital and small letters appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Non-standard abbreviations can result in medical errors and fines for the agency when discovered during chart audits </li></ul>80 slides total
  70. 70. Common abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>ā before </li></ul><ul><li>ad lib freely; at will </li></ul><ul><li>a.c. before a meal </li></ul><ul><li>b.i.d. twice a day </li></ul><ul><li>BM bowel movement </li></ul><ul><li>BP blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>c with </li></ul><ul><li>CDC Centers for Disease Control </li></ul>80 slides total
  71. 71. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>c/o complains of </li></ul><ul><li>d/c discontinue </li></ul><ul><li>h. hour </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O water </li></ul><ul><li>h.s. At night, at bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>I&O intake and output </li></ul><ul><li>lab. Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>n.p.o. Nothing by mouth </li></ul><ul><li>n&v nausea and vomiting </li></ul>80 slides total
  72. 72. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>O 2 oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>O.D. Right eye </li></ul><ul><li>O.S. Left eye </li></ul><ul><li>O.U. Each eye </li></ul><ul><li>p after </li></ul><ul><li>P pulse </li></ul><ul><li>p.c. After meals </li></ul><ul><li>P.O. By mouth </li></ul>80 slides total
  73. 73. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>p.r.n. As needed </li></ul><ul><li>q.d. Daily, once a day </li></ul><ul><li>q.h. Every hour </li></ul><ul><li>q.i.d. Four times a day </li></ul><ul><li>R respiration </li></ul><ul><li>RR respiration rate </li></ul><ul><li>s without </li></ul><ul><li>stat. immediately </li></ul>80 slides total
  74. 74. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>T temperature </li></ul><ul><li>t.i.d. Three times a day </li></ul><ul><li>TPR temperature, pulse and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Tx Treatment; traction </li></ul><ul><li>VS vital signs </li></ul><ul><li>Wt. Weight </li></ul><ul><li>x multiplied by </li></ul>80 slides total
  75. 75. Medical symbols <ul><li>> greater than </li></ul><ul><li>< less than </li></ul><ul><li>↓ decreased, down, lower </li></ul><ul><li> ↑ increased, higher, up, elevate </li></ul><ul><li>↘ decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>↗ increasing </li></ul><ul><li># pound or number </li></ul>80 slides total
  76. 76. Medical symbols <ul><li>′ foot or minute </li></ul><ul><li>″ inch or second </li></ul><ul><li>o degree </li></ul><ul><li>♂ male </li></ul><ul><li>♀ female </li></ul><ul><li>∆ change, trimester </li></ul><ul><li>@ at </li></ul>80 slides total
  77. 77. Medical Dictionary <ul><li>Taber’s or Mosby’s available in bookstores, come with textbooks and CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Medical dictionaries are available online </li></ul><ul><li>Add medical terms to your computer’s spell check program </li></ul>80 slides total
  78. 78. Choosing a medical dictionary <ul><li>Explanations of medical procedures, conditions, disorders and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, easy to understand definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Useful diagrams, charts, reference tables containing information like lab values, conversion tables (metric to standard), etc </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary useful to your chosen field </li></ul>80 slides total
  79. 79. Learn medical terminology <ul><li>Study and learn a few words every day </li></ul><ul><li>Make flash cards </li></ul><ul><li>Practice using terms verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Use symbols and abbreviations when you write notes </li></ul><ul><li>Use a medical dictionary for reference </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for a definition when you hear a term or see an abbreviation that you don’t know </li></ul>80 slides total
  80. 80. 1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY THE END 80 slides total

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