1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Justine Clegg, MS, LM, CPM, LMHC Chair/Professor Emeritus,...
Using medical terminology <ul><li>Medical terminology is used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conversation with other profession...
Using medical terminology <ul><li>Understanding and using medical terminology correctly is essential to a successful midwi...
Medical terminology <ul><li>Each health care specialty has its own terminology and abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Health ...
When not to use medical terminology <ul><li>Medical conditions, diagnoses, treatments and terms should always be explained...
Building blocks of medical language <ul><li>Medical terms are made up of several parts – elements - that can be combined t...
Building blocks of medical language <ul><li>3 principle elements make up medical terms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. roots and com...
Each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining  Vowel Su...
The Root <ul><li>The root is the part of the medical term that gives the main meaning </li></ul><ul><li>It usually refers ...
Combining forms <ul><li>Combining forms consist of roots plus a vowel, usually the letter “o” </li></ul><ul><li>In the dic...
Combining vowel <ul><li>The letter “o” is called the combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>It links the root to the “suffix,” ...
Roots and combining forms <ul><li>There are thousands of roots and combining forms that make up medical language </li></ul...
Basic root words <ul><li>Adip/o  fat </li></ul><ul><li>Arteri/o  artery </li></ul><ul><li>Arthr/o  joint </li></ul><ul><li...
Basic root words <ul><li>Cervic  neck </li></ul><ul><li>Cholecyst  gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>Col/o  large intestine </...
Basic root words <ul><li>Esophag  esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastr/o  stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Hem/o  blood </li></ul><u...
Basic root words <ul><li>Myel/o  spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>My/o, muculo  muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nas/o, rhino  nose <...
Basic root words <ul><li>Pneum/o,  </li></ul><ul><li>pneumon/o  lung </li></ul><ul><li>Splen/o  spleen  </li></ul><ul><li>...
Combining forms <ul><li>The letter “o” is called the combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>It links the root to the “suffix,” ...
Suffixes <ul><li>Suffixes are word elements that are attached to the end of roots and combining forms to add to or change ...
Suffixes <ul><li>Each suffix can be added to many roots  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>itis = inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Suffixes <ul><li>The combining vowel is used between the root and the suffix when the suffix begins with a consonant: </li...
Suffixes <ul><li>When the suffix begins with a vowel, there is no need for a combining vowel between the root and the suff...
Suffixes <ul><li>Some common meanings of suffixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological (disease) conditions </li></ul></ul>...
Suffixes <ul><li>When suffixes are listed in medical dictionaries or word lists, they are listed alphabetically </li></ul>...
Common suffixes <ul><li>Pertaining to: </li></ul><ul><li>-ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ose, -ous, -tic </l...
Common suffixes <ul><li>-algia  pain </li></ul><ul><li>-centesis  surgical puncture to  remove fluid </li></ul><ul><li>-ci...
Common suffixes <ul><li>-graph  instrument used to record </li></ul><ul><li>-graphy  process of recording </li></ul><ul><l...
Common suffixes <ul><li>-logy  study of </li></ul><ul><li>-logist person who studies it </li></ul><ul><li>-megaly  enlarge...
Common suffixes <ul><li>-plegia  paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>-pnea  breathing, respiration </li></ul><ul><li>-rrhea  drain...
Prefixes <ul><li>Prefixes are word elements that are attached to the  beginning  of roots and combining forms to add to or...
Prefixes <ul><li>Common meanings of prefixes: Location </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><u...
Prefixes <ul><li>The same prefixes can be attached to many root words, resulting in thousands of variations </li></ul><ul>...
Prefixes <ul><li>Prefixes can dramatically change the meaning of a word </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “systole” means “contra...
Prefixes <ul><li>When prefixes are listed in medical dictionaries and word lists, they are located alphabetically followed...
Common prefixes <ul><li>A-/an-  without, not </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-  against </li></ul><ul><li>Auto-  self </li></ul><ul>...
Common prefixes <ul><li>Eu-  good, normal  </li></ul><ul><li>Hemi-  half </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper-  above, excessive </li><...
Common prefixes <ul><li>Poly-  many, much </li></ul><ul><li>Post-  after, behind </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-  before, in front ...
Putting it all together <ul><li>Learn the meanings of commonly used word elements and understanding how they combine to ma...
Putting it all together <ul><li>The medical term is put together like a series of building blocks or train cars </li></ul>...
Putting it all together – linking the components to define the term 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining  Vowel Suffix
Putting it all together <ul><li>When you see a new term, break it down into the elements  </li></ul><ul><li>Start at the  ...
Start at the  end  of the word and work to the left 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining  Vowel Suffix
Example: “Echocardiogram” 80 slides total echo cardi o gram
Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right 80 slides total Echo  =  reflections  of sounds Cardi = heart O =  connec...
Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right 80 slides total Echo  =  reflections  of sounds Cardi = heart O =  connec...
Putting it all together  <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix   </li></ul><ul><li>Echocardiogram </li></ul>...
Example: “Cytology” 80 slides total No  Prefix Cyt o logy
Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix   </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology </li></ul><ul><li...
Example: “Bradycardia” 80 slides total Brady cardi No  Connec- ting vowel ia
Putting it all together  <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix   </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul><ul...
Example: “Splenectomy” 80 slides total No  prefix splen No  Connec- ting vowel ectomy
Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix   </li></ul><ul><li>Splenectomy </li></ul><ul>...
Putting it all together  <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix   </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li...
Putting it all together  <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix   </li></ul><ul><li>Hemocyte </li></ul><ul><l...
Changing the meaning of the term <ul><li>Changing one element modifies the meaning of the term </li></ul>80 slides total
tachy 80 slides total brady cardi No  Connec- ting vowel a Bradycardia : a condition of abnormally slow heart Tachycardia:...
cardi tachy 80 slides total pne No  Connec- ting vowel a Tachycardia : a condition of abnormally fast heart Tachypnea:  a ...
Spelling <ul><li>Correct spelling is critical in health care.  </li></ul><ul><li>Misspelled words can lead to diagnostic, ...
Spelling <ul><li>Pay attention to the context to help you figure out the correct meaning of a term </li></ul><ul><li>Examp...
Singular and plural <ul><li>Because many medical terms come from Greek and Latin words, the plural forms of the words are ...
80 slides total Changing singular to plural If the word ends in Change it to Examples:  singular, plural -a -ae vertebra, ...
Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>The “soft” pronunciation of the consonant is used when followed by e, i or y </li></ul><u...
Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>When a word ends in “i” it is pronounced like “eye” as in  </li></ul><ul><li>bacilli </li...
Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>When “P” is at the beginning of words followed by a consonant:  </li></ul><ul><li>“ ph” i...
Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Medical abbreviations and symbols are a “short hand” for medical professionals  </li></ul>...
Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Individual facilities and specialties may use their own specific abbreviations and symbols...
The context indicates the meaning <ul><li>Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o 1 st   bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Cli...
Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Don’t assume you know what an abbreviation or symbol means. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the ab...
Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Don’t use your own personal abbreviations in health care documents.  </li></ul><ul><li>Use...
Common abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>ā before </li></ul><ul><li>ad lib freely; at will </li></ul><ul><li>a.c.  before a ...
Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>c/o  complains of </li></ul><ul><li>d/c discontinue </li></ul><ul><li>h.  hour </l...
Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>O 2 oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>O.D. Right eye </li></ul><ul><li>O.S. Left eye </li><...
Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>p.r.n. As needed </li></ul><ul><li>q.d. Daily, once a day </li></ul><ul><li>q.h. E...
Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>T temperature </li></ul><ul><li>t.i.d. Three times a day </li></ul><ul><li>TPR tem...
Medical symbols <ul><li>> greater than </li></ul><ul><li>< less than </li></ul><ul><li>↓   decreased, down, lower </li></u...
Medical symbols <ul><li>′ foot or minute </li></ul><ul><li>″ inch or second </li></ul><ul><li>o degree </li></ul><ul><li>♂...
Medical Dictionary <ul><li>Taber’s or Mosby’s available in bookstores, come with textbooks and CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Medic...
Choosing a medical dictionary <ul><li>Explanations of medical procedures, conditions, disorders and diseases </li></ul><ul...
Learn medical terminology <ul><li>Study and learn a few words every day </li></ul><ul><li>Make flash cards </li></ul><ul><...
1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY THE END 80 slides total
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  1. 1. 1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY Justine Clegg, MS, LM, CPM, LMHC Chair/Professor Emeritus, Miami Dade College Midwifery Program 80 slides total
  2. 2. Using medical terminology <ul><li>Medical terminology is used in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>conversation with other professionals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>medical charting and documentation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>professional texts, journal articles </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  3. 3. Using medical terminology <ul><li>Understanding and using medical terminology correctly is essential to a successful midwifery career </li></ul><ul><li>Why is this essential? </li></ul>80 slides total
  4. 4. Medical terminology <ul><li>Each health care specialty has its own terminology and abbreviations </li></ul><ul><li>Health care professionals become so used to the language of their specialty they forget others don’t understand these terms </li></ul>80 slides total
  5. 5. When not to use medical terminology <ul><li>Medical conditions, diagnoses, treatments and terms should always be explained in lay person’s language when talking to patients, family and community members </li></ul><ul><li>Be aware of the client’s literacy level and language of origin </li></ul>80 slides total
  6. 6. Building blocks of medical language <ul><li>Medical terms are made up of several parts – elements - that can be combined to make many different words </li></ul><ul><li>Learning the meaning of these elements helps understand many medical terms </li></ul>80 slides total
  7. 7. Building blocks of medical language <ul><li>3 principle elements make up medical terms: </li></ul><ul><li>1. roots and combining forms </li></ul><ul><li>2. prefixes </li></ul><ul><li>3. suffixes </li></ul>80 slides total
  8. 8. Each element is essential to understanding the meaning of the medical term 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining Vowel Suffix
  9. 9. The Root <ul><li>The root is the part of the medical term that gives the main meaning </li></ul><ul><li>It usually refers to a structure and/or function of the body </li></ul><ul><li>Roots are usually Latin or Greek in origin </li></ul><ul><li>All medical terms have at least one root </li></ul>80 slides total
  10. 10. Combining forms <ul><li>Combining forms consist of roots plus a vowel, usually the letter “o” </li></ul><ul><li>In the dictionary, the vowel is separated from the root with a slash mark, example: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gastr/o - stomach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enter/o – small intestine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardi/o - heart </li></ul></ul></ul>80 slides total
  11. 11. Combining vowel <ul><li>The letter “o” is called the combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term </li></ul><ul><li>Used if the suffix begins with a consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>Not needed if the suffix begins with a vowel </li></ul>80 slides total
  12. 12. Roots and combining forms <ul><li>There are thousands of roots and combining forms that make up medical language </li></ul><ul><li>You need to learn the roots and combining forms used in general medical terminology and what is specific to maternity care </li></ul>80 slides total
  13. 13. Basic root words <ul><li>Adip/o fat </li></ul><ul><li>Arteri/o artery </li></ul><ul><li>Arthr/o joint </li></ul><ul><li>Axill armpit </li></ul><ul><li>Blephar eyelid </li></ul><ul><li>Bucca cheek </li></ul><ul><li>Cardi/a heart </li></ul><ul><li>Cephal head </li></ul><ul><li>Cerebr/o brain </li></ul>80 slides total
  14. 14. Basic root words <ul><li>Cervic neck </li></ul><ul><li>Cholecyst gallbladder </li></ul><ul><li>Col/o large intestine </li></ul><ul><li>Cost/o rib </li></ul><ul><li>Crani/o skull </li></ul><ul><li>Cyst/o urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Cyt/o cell </li></ul><ul><li>Derm skin </li></ul><ul><li>Enter small intestine </li></ul>80 slides total
  15. 15. Basic root words <ul><li>Esophag esophagus </li></ul><ul><li>Gastr/o stomach </li></ul><ul><li>Hem/o blood </li></ul><ul><li>Hepat/o liver </li></ul><ul><li>Ren/o, nephr/o kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Lapar abdominal wall </li></ul><ul><li>Laryng/o larynx </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbus loin, lower part of the back </li></ul>80 slides total
  16. 16. Basic root words <ul><li>Myel/o spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>My/o, muculo muscle </li></ul><ul><li>Nas/o, rhino nose </li></ul><ul><li>Neur/o nerve </li></ul><ul><li>Ophthalm/o, ocul/o eye </li></ul><ul><li>Or/o, stomat/o mouth </li></ul><ul><li>Oste/o bone </li></ul><ul><li>Ot/o ear </li></ul><ul><li>Pancreat/o pancreas </li></ul><ul><li>Pharyng/o throat </li></ul>80 slides total
  17. 17. Basic root words <ul><li>Pneum/o, </li></ul><ul><li>pneumon/o lung </li></ul><ul><li>Splen/o spleen </li></ul><ul><li>Thorac/o chest </li></ul><ul><li>Thyroid thyroid gland </li></ul><ul><li>Trache/o windpipe, trachea </li></ul><ul><li>Ven/o, phleb/o vein </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebr/o vertebra </li></ul><ul><li>Viv/o life </li></ul>80 slides total
  18. 18. Combining forms <ul><li>The letter “o” is called the combining vowel </li></ul><ul><li>It links the root to the “suffix,” the next element in the medical term, if the suffix begins with a consonant. </li></ul><ul><li>The combining form is always used when linking two roots, even if the second one starts with a vowel. </li></ul>80 slides total
  19. 19. Suffixes <ul><li>Suffixes are word elements that are attached to the end of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning </li></ul><ul><li>All medical terms have a suffix </li></ul>80 slides total
  20. 20. Suffixes <ul><li>Each suffix can be added to many roots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>itis = inflammation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appendicitis = inflamed appendix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>arthritis = inflamed joint </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  21. 21. Suffixes <ul><li>The combining vowel is used between the root and the suffix when the suffix begins with a consonant: </li></ul><ul><li>Example: cardi + o + megaly = cardiomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>cardiomegaly = enlarged heart </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cardi = heart, megaly = enlarged </li></ul></ul></ul>80 slides total
  22. 22. Suffixes <ul><li>When the suffix begins with a vowel, there is no need for a combining vowel between the root and the suffix </li></ul><ul><li>The suffix is attached to the root word </li></ul><ul><li>Example: gastr + itis = gastritis </li></ul><ul><li>gastritis = inflammation of the stomach </li></ul><ul><li>gastr = stomach, </li></ul><ul><li>itis = inflammation </li></ul>80 slides total
  23. 23. Suffixes <ul><li>Some common meanings of suffixes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pathological (disease) conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diagnostic procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surgical procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertaining to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produced by </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resembling </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  24. 24. Suffixes <ul><li>When suffixes are listed in medical dictionaries or word lists, they are listed alphabetically </li></ul><ul><li>The word is preceded by a dash and identified as a word element </li></ul><ul><li>The dash indicates something precedes it </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary entries will give the language of origin, usually Latin or Greek </li></ul>80 slides total
  25. 25. Common suffixes <ul><li>Pertaining to: </li></ul><ul><li>-ac, -al, -ar, -ary, -eal, -iac, -ic, -ical, -ose, -ous, -tic </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac (pertaining to the heart) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cellular (pertaining to the cell) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotic (pertaining to psychosis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporeal (pertaining to the body) </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  26. 26. Common suffixes <ul><li>-algia pain </li></ul><ul><li>-centesis surgical puncture to remove fluid </li></ul><ul><li>-cide to kill, destroy </li></ul><ul><li>-cyte cell </li></ul><ul><li>-ectomy removal of </li></ul><ul><li>-emia blood </li></ul><ul><li>-gram record </li></ul>80 slides total
  27. 27. Common suffixes <ul><li>-graph instrument used to record </li></ul><ul><li>-graphy process of recording </li></ul><ul><li>-ia, - a condition, esp. an abnormal state </li></ul><ul><li>-ism condition </li></ul><ul><li>-itis inflammation of </li></ul><ul><li>-lithiasis presence of or formation of stones </li></ul>80 slides total
  28. 28. Common suffixes <ul><li>-logy study of </li></ul><ul><li>-logist person who studies it </li></ul><ul><li>-megaly enlargement </li></ul><ul><li>-oid resembling </li></ul><ul><li>-oma tumor </li></ul><ul><li>-otomy surgical incision </li></ul><ul><li>-pathy disease </li></ul><ul><li>-plasty surgical repair </li></ul>80 slides total
  29. 29. Common suffixes <ul><li>-plegia paralysis </li></ul><ul><li>-pnea breathing, respiration </li></ul><ul><li>-rrhea drainage, flow </li></ul><ul><li>-scope examination, instrument </li></ul><ul><li>-scopy examination using a scope </li></ul><ul><li>-stasis stoppage </li></ul><ul><li>-stomy surgically create an artificial mouth or stoma </li></ul>80 slides total
  30. 30. Prefixes <ul><li>Prefixes are word elements that are attached to the beginning of roots and combining forms to add to or change their meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Many (but not all) medical terms have a prefix </li></ul>80 slides total
  31. 31. Prefixes <ul><li>Common meanings of prefixes: Location </li></ul><ul><li>Position </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Time </li></ul><ul><li>Number </li></ul><ul><li>Negation, absence of </li></ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul>80 slides total
  32. 32. Prefixes <ul><li>The same prefixes can be attached to many root words, resulting in thousands of variations </li></ul><ul><li>The prefix “hyper” means “abnormally increased or excessive” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperacid = excessively acidic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperactive = abnormally active </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertension = persistently high blood pressure </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  33. 33. Prefixes <ul><li>Prefixes can dramatically change the meaning of a word </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “systole” means “contraction of the heart” </li></ul><ul><li>The one letter prefix “a” means “without” </li></ul><ul><li>“ A systole” means “ no contractions of the heart” -- Just one letter makes the difference between life and death! </li></ul><ul><li>Correct spelling is critical in health care </li></ul>80 slides total
  34. 34. Prefixes <ul><li>When prefixes are listed in medical dictionaries and word lists, they are located alphabetically followed by a dash and identified as a word element </li></ul><ul><li>Their origin (Latin, Greek) is usually given </li></ul><ul><li>Example: </li></ul><ul><li>epi- word element (Gr) meaning over </li></ul><ul><li>poly - word element (Gr) meaning many, much </li></ul>80 slides total
  35. 35. Common prefixes <ul><li>A-/an- without, not </li></ul><ul><li>Anti- against </li></ul><ul><li>Auto- self </li></ul><ul><li>Bi- two, double </li></ul><ul><li>Brady- slow </li></ul><ul><li>Dys- bad, difficult, painful </li></ul><ul><li>Epi- over </li></ul>80 slides total
  36. 36. Common prefixes <ul><li>Eu- good, normal </li></ul><ul><li>Hemi- half </li></ul><ul><li>Hyper- above, excessive </li></ul><ul><li>Hypo- less than, under </li></ul><ul><li>Inter- between </li></ul><ul><li>Intra- within </li></ul><ul><li>Multi- many </li></ul><ul><li>Non- not </li></ul><ul><li>Peri- around </li></ul>80 slides total
  37. 37. Common prefixes <ul><li>Poly- many, much </li></ul><ul><li>Post- after, behind </li></ul><ul><li>Pre- before, in front </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudo- false </li></ul><ul><li>Quadri- four </li></ul><ul><li>Semi- half </li></ul><ul><li>Sub- under, below </li></ul><ul><li>Supra- above, over </li></ul><ul><li>Tachy- fast, rapid </li></ul><ul><li>Tri- three </li></ul>80 slides total
  38. 38. Putting it all together <ul><li>Learn the meanings of commonly used word elements and understanding how they combine to make a medical term </li></ul><ul><li>Then you can figure out the meaning of thousands of medical terms </li></ul><ul><li>Think of each word as a combination of building blocks or railroad cars, fitted together to create a precise meaning </li></ul>80 slides total
  39. 39. Putting it all together <ul><li>The medical term is put together like a series of building blocks or train cars </li></ul><ul><li>Prefix + </li></ul><ul><li>Root + </li></ul><ul><li>Combining vowel (if needed) + </li></ul><ul><li>Suffix </li></ul>80 slides total
  40. 40. Putting it all together – linking the components to define the term 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining Vowel Suffix
  41. 41. Putting it all together <ul><li>When you see a new term, break it down into the elements </li></ul><ul><li>Start at the end of the word and work to the left </li></ul><ul><li>Identify and define each element </li></ul><ul><li>As you define each element you will define the medical term </li></ul>80 slides total
  42. 42. Start at the end of the word and work to the left 80 slides total Prefix Root Combining Vowel Suffix
  43. 43. Example: “Echocardiogram” 80 slides total echo cardi o gram
  44. 44. Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right 80 slides total Echo = reflections of sounds Cardi = heart O = connecting vowel Gram = Written, record
  45. 45. Define Echocardiogram reading from left to right 80 slides total Echo = reflections of sounds Cardi = heart O = connecting vowel Gram = Written, record Echocardiogram is defined as a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds
  46. 46. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Echocardiogram </li></ul><ul><li>echo = reflections of sounds </li></ul><ul><li>cardi = heart </li></ul><ul><li>o = connecting vowel </li></ul><ul><li>gram = written, record </li></ul><ul><li>Echocardiogram is a written recording of the heart using reflections of sounds </li></ul>80 slides total
  47. 47. Example: “Cytology” 80 slides total No Prefix Cyt o logy
  48. 48. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology </li></ul><ul><li>Cyt (root) = cell </li></ul><ul><li>o = the connecting vowel </li></ul><ul><li>logy = (suffix) study of </li></ul><ul><li>Cytology means study of the cell </li></ul><ul><li>A cytologist is someone who studies cells </li></ul>80 slides total
  49. 49. Example: “Bradycardia” 80 slides total Brady cardi No Connec- ting vowel ia
  50. 50. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia </li></ul><ul><li>Brady = abnormally slow </li></ul><ul><li>no connecting vowel is needed because the prefix ends with a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>cardi = heart </li></ul><ul><li>ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state </li></ul><ul><li>Bradycardia means a condition of abnormally slow heart </li></ul>80 slides total
  51. 51. Example: “Splenectomy” 80 slides total No prefix splen No Connec- ting vowel ectomy
  52. 52. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Splenectomy </li></ul><ul><li>splen = (root) spleen </li></ul><ul><li>no connecting vowel is needed because the suffix begins with a vowel </li></ul><ul><li>ectomy = (suffix) removal of </li></ul><ul><li>Splenectomy means removal of a spleen </li></ul>80 slides total
  53. 53. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea </li></ul><ul><li>Dys = bad, difficult, painful </li></ul><ul><li>pnea = breathing, respiration </li></ul><ul><li>ia, a = condition, esp. an abnormal state </li></ul><ul><li>Dyspnea means an abnormal condition of difficult breathing </li></ul>80 slides total
  54. 54. Putting it all together <ul><li>Prefix + root + (connecting vowel) + suffix </li></ul><ul><li>Hemocyte </li></ul><ul><li>hem = blood </li></ul><ul><li>o = connecting vowel </li></ul><ul><li>cyte = cell </li></ul><ul><li>Hemocyte is a blood cell </li></ul>80 slides total
  55. 55. Changing the meaning of the term <ul><li>Changing one element modifies the meaning of the term </li></ul>80 slides total
  56. 56. tachy 80 slides total brady cardi No Connec- ting vowel a Bradycardia : a condition of abnormally slow heart Tachycardia: a condition of abnormally fast heart
  57. 57. cardi tachy 80 slides total pne No Connec- ting vowel a Tachycardia : a condition of abnormally fast heart Tachypnea: a condition of abnormally fast breathing
  58. 58. Spelling <ul><li>Correct spelling is critical in health care. </li></ul><ul><li>Misspelled words can lead to diagnostic, medication and treatment errors </li></ul><ul><li>Some words look or sound similar and can be confused </li></ul>80 slides total
  59. 59. Spelling <ul><li>Pay attention to the context to help you figure out the correct meaning of a term </li></ul><ul><li>Example: “The client has a fractured ilium” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ilium = part of the hip bone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ileum = part of the intestine </li></ul></ul>80 slides total
  60. 60. Singular and plural <ul><li>Because many medical terms come from Greek and Latin words, the plural forms of the words are not made by adding an “s” as in English </li></ul><ul><li>Memorize the guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>When in doubt, memorize the specific words </li></ul>80 slides total
  61. 61. 80 slides total Changing singular to plural If the word ends in Change it to Examples: singular, plural -a -ae vertebra, vertebrae -ex or -ix -ices index, indices -is -es diagnosis, diagnoses -itis -ides arthritis, arthritides -nx -ges phalanx, phalanges -on -a ganglion, ganglia -um -a ovum, ova -us -i alveolus, alveoli
  62. 62. Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>The “soft” pronunciation of the consonant is used when followed by e, i or y </li></ul><ul><li>“ c” sounds like “s” </li></ul><ul><li>cell, circulation, cyst </li></ul><ul><li>“ g” sounds like “j” when followed by e, i or y </li></ul><ul><li>genetic, gingivitis, gestation </li></ul><ul><li>“ ch” sounds like “k” </li></ul><ul><li>chronic, chromium, cholecystitis, psychologist </li></ul>80 slides total
  63. 63. Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>When a word ends in “i” it is pronounced like “eye” as in </li></ul><ul><li>bacilli </li></ul><ul><li>“ x” is pronounced “z” as in </li></ul><ul><li>xylocaine </li></ul><ul><li>xenophobic </li></ul>80 slides total
  64. 64. Pronunciation guidelines <ul><li>When “P” is at the beginning of words followed by a consonant: </li></ul><ul><li>“ ph” is pronounced “f” as in </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacy </li></ul><ul><li>“ pn” is pronounced “n” (silent “p”) as in pneumonia, pneumococcus </li></ul><ul><li>“ ps” is pronounced “s” (silent “p”) as in psychotic, </li></ul><ul><li>psychosocial </li></ul><ul><li>psychologist </li></ul>80 slides total
  65. 65. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Medical abbreviations and symbols are a “short hand” for medical professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Most have been standardized and are universally accepted </li></ul>80 slides total
  66. 66. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Individual facilities and specialties may use their own specific abbreviations and symbols or use a symbol differently </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Means “change” </li></ul><ul><li>In maternity care it is also used to mean “trimester” </li></ul>80 slides total
  67. 67. The context indicates the meaning <ul><li>Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o 1 st bleeding </li></ul><ul><li>Client S.J., 24 yo, 8 weeks gestation, c/o constipation. Recommend her PNV Rx @ her next PNV. </li></ul>80 slides total
  68. 68. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Don’t assume you know what an abbreviation or symbol means. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn the abbreviations and symbols used on your clinical site during orientation to the practice, through chart review, and by asking. </li></ul>80 slides total
  69. 69. Abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>Don’t use your own personal abbreviations in health care documents. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only standard medically accepted abbreviations and those used by the facility on your clinical site </li></ul><ul><li>Use capital and small letters appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Non-standard abbreviations can result in medical errors and fines for the agency when discovered during chart audits </li></ul>80 slides total
  70. 70. Common abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>ā before </li></ul><ul><li>ad lib freely; at will </li></ul><ul><li>a.c. before a meal </li></ul><ul><li>b.i.d. twice a day </li></ul><ul><li>BM bowel movement </li></ul><ul><li>BP blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>c with </li></ul><ul><li>CDC Centers for Disease Control </li></ul>80 slides total
  71. 71. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>c/o complains of </li></ul><ul><li>d/c discontinue </li></ul><ul><li>h. hour </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O water </li></ul><ul><li>h.s. At night, at bedtime </li></ul><ul><li>I&O intake and output </li></ul><ul><li>lab. Laboratory </li></ul><ul><li>n.p.o. Nothing by mouth </li></ul><ul><li>n&v nausea and vomiting </li></ul>80 slides total
  72. 72. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>O 2 oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>O.D. Right eye </li></ul><ul><li>O.S. Left eye </li></ul><ul><li>O.U. Each eye </li></ul><ul><li>p after </li></ul><ul><li>P pulse </li></ul><ul><li>p.c. After meals </li></ul><ul><li>P.O. By mouth </li></ul>80 slides total
  73. 73. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>p.r.n. As needed </li></ul><ul><li>q.d. Daily, once a day </li></ul><ul><li>q.h. Every hour </li></ul><ul><li>q.i.d. Four times a day </li></ul><ul><li>R respiration </li></ul><ul><li>RR respiration rate </li></ul><ul><li>s without </li></ul><ul><li>stat. immediately </li></ul>80 slides total
  74. 74. Medical abbreviations & symbols <ul><li>T temperature </li></ul><ul><li>t.i.d. Three times a day </li></ul><ul><li>TPR temperature, pulse and respiration </li></ul><ul><li>Tx Treatment; traction </li></ul><ul><li>VS vital signs </li></ul><ul><li>Wt. Weight </li></ul><ul><li>x multiplied by </li></ul>80 slides total
  75. 75. Medical symbols <ul><li>> greater than </li></ul><ul><li>< less than </li></ul><ul><li>↓ decreased, down, lower </li></ul><ul><li> ↑ increased, higher, up, elevate </li></ul><ul><li>↘ decreasing </li></ul><ul><li>↗ increasing </li></ul><ul><li># pound or number </li></ul>80 slides total
  76. 76. Medical symbols <ul><li>′ foot or minute </li></ul><ul><li>″ inch or second </li></ul><ul><li>o degree </li></ul><ul><li>♂ male </li></ul><ul><li>♀ female </li></ul><ul><li>∆ change, trimester </li></ul><ul><li>@ at </li></ul>80 slides total
  77. 77. Medical Dictionary <ul><li>Taber’s or Mosby’s available in bookstores, come with textbooks and CDs </li></ul><ul><li>Medical dictionaries are available online </li></ul><ul><li>Add medical terms to your computer’s spell check program </li></ul>80 slides total
  78. 78. Choosing a medical dictionary <ul><li>Explanations of medical procedures, conditions, disorders and diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Clear, easy to understand definitions </li></ul><ul><li>Pronunciation guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Abbreviations and symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Useful diagrams, charts, reference tables containing information like lab values, conversion tables (metric to standard), etc </li></ul><ul><li>Vocabulary useful to your chosen field </li></ul>80 slides total
  79. 79. Learn medical terminology <ul><li>Study and learn a few words every day </li></ul><ul><li>Make flash cards </li></ul><ul><li>Practice using terms verbally </li></ul><ul><li>Use symbols and abbreviations when you write notes </li></ul><ul><li>Use a medical dictionary for reference </li></ul><ul><li>Ask for a definition when you hear a term or see an abbreviation that you don’t know </li></ul>80 slides total
  80. 80. 1120 LEGAL AND ETHICAL ASPECTS OF MIDWIFERY MEDICAL TERMINOLOGY THE END 80 slides total
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