Medical term

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Medical term

  1. 1. Body Structure and Directional Terminology What a piece of work is a man! How noble in reason! How infinite in faculties! In form and moving, how express and admirable! In action how like an angel! In apprehension, how like a god! The beauty of the world! The paragon of animals!” – William Shakespeare
  2. 2. <ul><li>1. Alzheimer disease is an example of a(n): </li></ul><ul><li>a.prefix. </li></ul><ul><li>b.eponym. </li></ul><ul><li>c.word root. </li></ul><ul><li>d.decodable term. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><ul><li>2.Arthr/o is an example of a: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>a.prefix. </li></ul><ul><li>b.suffix. </li></ul><ul><li>c.word root. </li></ul><ul><li>d.combining form. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>3. In the term “hypodermic,” the prefix is: </li></ul><ul><li>a.hypo. </li></ul><ul><li>b.dermo. </li></ul><ul><li>c.derm. </li></ul><ul><li>d.ic </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>5. The rules for combining a word root and a suffix that starts with a vowel indicate that you should: </li></ul><ul><li>a.add a combining vowel before the suffix </li></ul><ul><li>.b.directly connect the word root and suffix. </li></ul><ul><li>c.reverse the suffix and word root so that the suffix comes first. </li></ul><ul><li>d.add another word root to join the suffix and initial word root </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>6. Which is a diagnostic sign? </li></ul><ul><li>a.fever </li></ul><ul><li>b.dizziness </li></ul><ul><li>c.pain </li></ul><ul><li>d.itching </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>7. What type of diagnosis begins suddenly and severely and ends after a short period of time? </li></ul><ul><li>a.sign </li></ul><ul><li>b.acute </li></ul><ul><li>c.symptom </li></ul><ul><li>d.chronic </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>8. Which of the following disorders is an inflammation? </li></ul><ul><li>a.cardiomegaly </li></ul><ul><li>b.ophthalmodynia </li></ul><ul><li>c.enteritis </li></ul><ul><li>d.gastrorrhexis </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>9. The “o” in the term thermometer is a: </li></ul><ul><li>a.prefix. </li></ul><ul><li>b.combining form. </li></ul><ul><li>c.word root </li></ul><ul><li>d.combining vowel. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>10. The basketball player was back for yet another visual examination of his knee joint. He was there for an: </li></ul><ul><li>a.arthrotomy. </li></ul><ul><li>b.arthrotome. </li></ul><ul><li>c.arthroscopy. </li></ul><ul><li>d.arthroscope </li></ul>
  11. 11. Organization of the Human Body <ul><li>Human organism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cells (cyt/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues (hist/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organs (viscer/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of homeostasis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Home/o + -stasis - the process of balance needed to maintain a healthy body </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><li>Cells (cyt/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy conversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism (meta-) act of converting energy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anabolism (ana-) building up substances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Catabolism (cata-) breaking down substances </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(bol/o) to cast (-ism) condition of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(ana-) up (cata-) down (meta-) change </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metabolism = anabolism + catabolism </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><ul><li>Cell components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cytoplasm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleus </li></ul></ul></ul>The Cell
  14. 14. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><li>Tissues (hist/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four types of tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Epithelial – covers and/or lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Skin, stomach lining </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Connective- supports and/or binds other tissues and body parts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bone, blood, fat, tendons, ligaments,cartilage </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscular- three types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smooth- involuntary- visceral </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Striated- voluntary – skeletal </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous- transmits impulses – activates, coordinates, controlls function of much of body </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><li>Organs (organ/o, viscer/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Termed “viscera” ( s. viscus) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Arrangements of various types of tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Endocardium (epithelial) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Myocardium (muscular) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conduction system (nervous) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><li>Some combining forms for organs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bladder: cyst/o, vesic/o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bone: oste/o, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidney: nephr/o, ren/o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ovary: oophor/o, ovari/o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin: cutane/o, derm/o, dermat/o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testis: test/o, orchid/o </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver: hepat/o </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. More body parts: <ul><li>brain: cerebr/o, encephal/o </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach gastr/o </li></ul><ul><li>Intestine: enter/o </li></ul><ul><li>Arteries arteri/o </li></ul><ul><li>Veins ven/o, phleb/o </li></ul><ul><li>Heart cardi/o </li></ul><ul><li>Lungs pulmon/o </li></ul><ul><li>Skin cuane/o, derm/o, dermat/o </li></ul>
  18. 18. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><li>Body systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Musculoskeletal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integumentary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gastrointestinal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Organization of the Human Body, continued <ul><ul><li>Blood/Lymphatic/Immune </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiovascular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nervous/Behavioral </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Senses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Endocrine </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Positional and Directional Terms, continued <ul><li>Anterior (anter/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ventral (ventr/o) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Posterior (poster/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dorsal (dors/o) </li></ul></ul>anterior posterior
  21. 21. Positional and Directional Terms <ul><li>Terms we use to describe positions and directions in the human body. </li></ul>anteroposterior posteroanterior
  22. 22. Positional and Directional Terms, continued <ul><li>Superior (super/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cephalad (cephal/o) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inferior (infer/o) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caudad (caud/o) </li></ul></ul>superior inferior
  23. 23. Positional and Directional Terms, continued <ul><li>Medial (medi/o) </li></ul><ul><li>Lateral (later/o) </li></ul><ul><li>Unilateral (uni-) </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral (bi-) </li></ul>medial lateral
  24. 24. Positional and Directional Terms, continued <ul><li>Superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Deep </li></ul><ul><li>Proximal (proxim/o) </li></ul><ul><li>Distal (dist/o) </li></ul>proximal distal
  25. 25. Positional and Directional Terms, continued <ul><li>Supine </li></ul><ul><li>Prone </li></ul><ul><li>Supinate </li></ul><ul><li>Pronate </li></ul><ul><li>Palmar </li></ul><ul><li>Plantar </li></ul>prone supine
  26. 26. Positional and Directional Terms, continued <ul><li>Dextrad (dextr/o) </li></ul><ul><li>Sinistrad (sinistr/o, levo-) </li></ul>afferent efferent
  27. 27. Planes of the Body <ul><li>Sagittal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Midsagittal </li></ul></ul>sagittal midsagittal
  28. 28. Planes of the Body, continued <ul><li>Frontal/coronal </li></ul>
  29. 29. Planes of the Body, continued <ul><li>Transverse </li></ul><ul><li>Oblique </li></ul>
  30. 30. Body Cavities <ul><li>Dorsal cavities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cranial (crani/o) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spinal (spin/o) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ventral cavities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic (thorac/o) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal (abdomin/o) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic (pelv/i) </li></ul></ul>body cavities
  31. 31. Body Cavities, continued <ul><li>Ventral cavity detail </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoracic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mediastinum (mediastin/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pleural cavity (pleur/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abdominal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphragm (diaphragm/o, diaphragmat/o, phren/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Peritoneum (peritone/o) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelvic </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Abdominopelvic Regions <ul><li>Nine regions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left and right hypochondriac </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epigastric </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left and right lumbar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Umbilical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left and right iliac (inguinal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypogastric </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Abdominopelvic Quadrants <ul><li>Right upper quadrant (RUQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Liver </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left upper quadrant (LUQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stomach and spleen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right lower quadrant (RLQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appendix and McBurney’s point </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Left lower quadrant (LLQ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Munro’s point </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>11. The normal dynamic process of balance in the body is: </li></ul><ul><li>a.catabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>b.metabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>c.anabolism. </li></ul><ul><li>d.homeostasis </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>12. Hist/o is a combining form for: </li></ul><ul><li>a.cells. </li></ul><ul><li>b.tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>c.organs. </li></ul><ul><li>d.body systems. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>13. Back to front is: </li></ul><ul><li>a.anteroposterior. </li></ul><ul><li>b.distoproximal. </li></ul><ul><li>c.posteroanterior. </li></ul><ul><li>d.proximodistal </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>14. The scrapes on the elbows of the child were described as ____ injuries. </li></ul><ul><li>a.supine </li></ul><ul><li>b.superior </li></ul><ul><li>c.superficial </li></ul><ul><li>d.supinate </li></ul>
  38. 38. <ul><li>15. One who studies cells is a: </li></ul><ul><li>a.cytologist. </li></ul><ul><li>b.histologist. </li></ul><ul><li>c.cystologist. </li></ul><ul><li>d.pathologist </li></ul>

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