Management 3.0 - Empower Teams
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Management 3.0 - Empower Teams

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This presentation is part of the Management 3.0 course, developed by Jurgen Appelo

This presentation is part of the Management 3.0 course, developed by Jurgen Appelo

http://www.management30.com/course-introduction/

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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • Thanks Jurgen for your quick answer. We experiment with it then. ;)
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  • @mvandam Sorry, I have no further details. There are no additional rules or explanations at this point. You'll just have to experiment and define your own precise rules. :)
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  • Hi Jurgen. Great presentation. Do you have any more detailed examples of Leadership boards available? They would be helpful to really understand how this practice works.

    My main question is: in your example images you always placed only one team or individual per horizontal row. Is that the way it is supposed to work?

    Any more clarity you could be provide would be great.
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  • Jurgen...could you please upload the file again?
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  • Excellent presentation about why and how to delegate
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  • My personal story here is that, after the introduction of Scrum in our organization, I was faced with decisions to be made concerning story points, meeting rooms, sprint lengths, etc. I left all those decisions to the teams. There was only one requirement I had for all teams: planning meetings would have to take place on Mondays. Because otherwise it would be very inefficient (at the organizational level).You will have to come up with your own personal story that reflects empowerment/delegation.
  • Most Agile books seem to assume that organizations come from the ordered part of the spectrum, and have to “let go” over strict management. But many other organizations (like in my own experience) are in the chaotic part of the spectrum. They need a little bit more management. (I did that by imposing Scrum, and it worked.)See book: page 102-103
  • See book: page 115-117
  • See book: page 111-112
  • Authorization usually starts with shareholders who authorize top managers to grow a business with their money. These top managers hire and authorize other people to do work. This leads, quite naturally, to a hierarchy. But that is the only thing a corporate hierarchy is good for: authorizing people and making sure each person has only one boss.
  • I don’t know any other good word for empowerment, even though it has been overused in management literature. So I will stick to it for now.See book: page 112-114
  • This is often the problem with managers: they fear they become powerless when they hand over authority to other people.See book: page 124-125
  • I explain here that I became more powerful after introducing Scrum in the organization, because (despite plenty of issues) it seemed to work nicely. And because top management liked it and saw the results, I became more important in the eyes of top management for having changed the organization in such a positive way.
  • Some managers forget to tell their teams that they trust them.If you explicitly tell people you trust them you may increase their commitment and loyalty.See book: page 138-139
  • I have seen managers requiring certain behavior from employees (for example, “be more disciplined”) while they rarely showed such behavior themselves (for example, never being on time in meetings).You destroy trust if you don’t lead by example and show the behavior you also expect from others.See book: page 139-140
  • Sometimes team members keep asking the manager to help them solve issues. This may be an indication that they don’t trust each other enough to make good decisions. You can increase trust between people in a team by not giving them solutions to their problems. Let them figure it out together first.See book: page 140
  • This seems a bit cheesy. But I have it from a book by Scott Berkun. If you don’t trust your own behavior, if you don’t live up to your own value system, then how can you expect other people to trust you?Trust yourself first, before building trust relationships with others.See book: page 140-141
  • So these are the four types of trust. A manager needs to work on all of them.
  • Now we get more practical...
  • See book: page 127-129
  • Authority boards are a very new concept, not described in the book. I have received a few reports since I published the first articles about it of teams using them successfully, but it is far from a mainstream topic. Still, I want to show it because it nicely reflects the way of thinking of an Agile manager: delegate as much as possible by using some kind of information radiator.
  • Put the 7 levels of authority horizontally on a board.
  • List all key decision areas (only the ones that are worth communicating and discussing).
  • Determine which teams or individuals are authorized to do what, and at what level.
  • The nice thing about this approach is that there is an urge to make things flow from left to right, just like a regular task board.
  • You must treat delegation as an investment. It doesn’t pay back for itself immediately. It takes a while...See book: page 133-134
  • Like 100% code coverage a fully self-directed team (all key decision areas at level 7) is the ultimate goal that you will never reach.
  • Hand out the playing cards to each table. Ask them to distribute sets of 7 cards among each other.Check that there are at least four people at every table. I don’t think the game works well with only tree people.Make it clear that it is more fun for people to come up with their own stories from personal experience.Some groups make it easy and simply read off the 10 stories from the paper.Maybe you can find a way to incentivize people to think of their own stories. 
  • Make sure everyone pays attention to these examples. They make it quite clear how it works.Suppose 3 people at the table choose 6, the others choose 4 and 5.You always look at the highest number that was played, in this case 6.
  • If the people with the highest number are not a minority, everybody wins points.But you only win points according to your card’s value.
  • Another example: suppose only one person chooses 7.
  • In that case everyone wins points except number 7, because 7 is now a minority at the table.Conclusion: in order to win points choose as high as possible, but without becoming a minority at the table.
  • Make it clear that the most value in this game is achieved by discussing the lowest and highest card values that were chosen. The other stuff (calculating points and playing again for the same topic) is optional.
  • I show this slide on screen while people are playing the game.
  • Some possible questions:What effect did the points have?What effect did the discussions have?I usually point out that the game is actually skewed when people have different projects and teams. In that case it is hard to compare the choices for authorization, because such choices should be context-dependent.It is probably even more interesting to play the game with one team and its manager. Then they all have the same context.
  • It is now time to discuss the most important challenges that were written on sticky notes earlier in the course.This is the 4th part of the course so we usually end the day after this module.
  • I make a central action list on a wall, and I ask the group at the end of the module which concrete practices they think most managers should do regularly. They can be practices that I have suggested in this module or other practices they suggest themselves.We will review the entire list of practices at the end of the course.
  • Once again I explicitly ask people to give feedback on the feedback door, before they leave the room to go home.

Management 3.0 - Empower Teams Management 3.0 - Empower Teams Presentation Transcript

  • Empower Teams
    © Jurgen Appelo version 0.99 management30.com
  • story
  • Management 3.0
  • View #2: Empower Teams
    Teams can self-organize, and this requires empowerment, authorization, and trust from management.
  • Agile software development works because of
    self-organizing teams
  • management
    self-organization
    self-organizationis often complex, not chaotic
    Sometimes it needs a littlemanagement
  • Managers are like gardeners
    They let self-organization (anarchy) do useful work
    while steering the system toward valuable results
  • But HOWdo we grow
    a valuable self-organizing system?
  • Well, NOTby putting a
    control center on top of a living system
  • Distributed being
    A complex system is more than the sum of its parts, and the “extra” stuff is distributed over the system. It cannot be attributed to any single authoritative part.
    Control from the bottom up
    In a complex system, everything happens at once, and problems ignore any central authority. Therefore overall governance must be spread among all the parts.
    Kelly, Kevin. Out of Control.
    Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1994, page 469
  • Authorization
  • We distribute authorization with...
    Empowerment
    Yes, there is that
    buzzword again...
  • Empowerment
    is implementing distributed control by delegating authority
  • Delegation
    “Delegation (or deputation) is the assignment of authority and responsibility to another person (normally from a manager to a subordinate) to carry out specific activities.”
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Delegation
  • Managers empower people,and distribute control,to prevent the system itselffrom breaking down.
  • Question:
    Does handing over power to others make you
    powerless?
  • Answer: NO
    Non-Zero-Sum
    Zero-Sum
    Free markets
    Social networks
    Teamwork

    We all win!
    Football
    Elections
    Judiciary

    I win and you lose
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-sum
  • Non-Zero-Sum
    Powerful teams make their managers more powerful.
  • Trust your people(communicate this clearly)
  • 2) Earn trust from your people(consistent behavior)
  • Help people to trust each other(mingle, don’t meddle)
  • 4) Trust yourself(stay true to your own values)
  • The four types of trust
  • Techniques for delegation
  • Key Decision Areas
    Make explicit list with“areas of authorization”
    Prepare project schedules
    Select key technologies
    Set documentation standards
    Etc…
    People should not walk into“invisible electric fences”
    Reinertsen, Donald. Managing the Design Factory. New York: Free Press, 1997, page 107.
  • Key Decision Areas
    However…
    Authorization per key decision area is not a “binary” thing
    Reinertsen, Donald. Managing the Design Factory. New York: Free Press, 1997, page 107.
  • Situational Leadership
    Four different “leadership styles”
    Telling
    Selling
    Participating
    Delegation
    Work your way to level 4
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Situational_leadership_theory
  • Situational Leadership
    However…
    It might be good to distinguish between informing people (push your opinion) vs. consulting them (pull their opinions)
  • RACI Matrix
    Involvement depends on tasks
    Responsible
    Accountable
    Consulted
    Informed
    Make explicit what people can expect from whom
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Responsibility_assignment_matrix
  • RACI Matrix
    However…
    Key decision areas are better than tasks, and there should be no separation of accountable versus responsible in Agile teams
  • We will now mergethe ideas behind the previous examples...
  • The Seven Levels of Authority
    Tell: make decision as the manager
    Sell: convince people about decision
    Consult: get input from team before decision
    Agree: make decision together with team
    Advise: influence decision made by the team
    Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team
    Delegate: no influence, let team work it out
  • Relocate to other office building
    Replace waterfall with Scrum
    Select new team members
    Choose logo for business unit
    Select architecture or component
    Sprint length and deliveries
    Coding guidelines and pairing
    EXAMPLE
  • The optimal level of authority depends on people’s competenceand the organizational impactof decisions
  • Authority Boards
  • Seven Levels of Authority
  • Key Decision Areas
  • teams or people
  • flow from left to right
  • Authority boards are
    controlled by the manager
  • Treat delegation as an
    investment
  • The ultimate goal is a
    self-directed team
    (but usually not attainable)
  • Game: Delegation Poker
    Find Delegation Poker Cards, and Delegation Poker Stories
    One person picks a story and reads it out loudOR tell a story from personal experience
    Everyone choose (privately) one of the 7 cards
    After everyone has decided, show all cards
    Everyone earn points except the highest minority(see examples…)
  • Game: Delegation Poker
    Keep track of the points people earned (optional)
    Let both highest and lowest motivate their choices
    Play it again for the same topic (optional)
    30 minutes
  • Tell: make decision as the manager
    Sell: convince people about decision
    Consult: get input from team before decision
    Agree: make decision together with team
    Advise: influence decision made by the team
    Inquire: ask feedback after decision by team
    Delegate: no influence, let team work it out
  • Debrief
  • Challenges
  • Practices
  • Feedback