2. I. Chemistry of LifeA. Nature of Matter 1. Matter: anything that has mass and takes up space. 2. Energy: anything that brings about change. a. Energy can hold things together or break things apart.
3. I. Chemistry of LifeB. Atoms 1. Matter is made up of atoms a. Atoms are the smallest unit of anything. 2. The center of an atom is called the nucleus. a. The nucleus contains two atomic particles called protons and neutrons.
4. I. Chemistry of Life 3. Atoms are made up of three smaller particles. a. Protons: positive charge; found in nucleus. b. Neutrons: neutral charge; found in nucleus. c. Electrons: negative charge; found in electron cloud.
5. ATOMIC MODEL
6. I. Chemistry of Life 4. The charge of the nucleus of an atom is positive because it has only protons (+) and neutrons (0).
7. I. Chemistry of Life 5. Electrons are important because they are the parts that are involved with all chemical reactions. 6. Electrons are the smallest particle in an atom. 7. Atoms are usually neutral (they do not have a charge). a. This is because the protons in an atom usually equals the electrons.
8. Noah and Noah working on their virus paper!!!!
9. I. Chemistry of LifeC. What is an Element 1. An element is matter that is made up of only one kind of atom. 2. Cannot be broken down into simpler forms. 3. Each element is given a 1, 2, or 3 letter symbol. a. Some symbols are from Latin names. b. Some symbols are from common names. c. Examples given in class!!!! Pay attention
10. I. Chemistry of Life 4. There are currently 118 Elements. a. 90 are natural elements, 28 are man made elements.D. The Periodic Table of Elements 1. A list of all elements by size (atomic number), the smallest are in the upper left (Hydrogen), the heaviest are at the bottom right (#118) 2. The table shows the name, symbol, and how many protons it has.
11. PERIODIC TABLE
12. I. Chemistry of LifeE. Elements of Life 1. 99% of all living matter is made up of six elements. 2. Humans a. O-oxygen=65% b. C-Carbon= 18.5 % c. H-Hydrogen = 9.5% d. N-Nitrogen = 3.2% e. Ca-Calcium = 1.5% f. P-Phosphorus = 0.4% g. See entire chart on page 67 of your textbook
13. I. Chemistry of LifeF. What is a Compound? 1. A compound is a substance made up of 2 or more elements combined chemically in exact proportions. 2. EX: WATER is always 2 H to 1 O or H2O. 3. Compounds act and appear differently than the original elements. a. Hydrogen is explosive, and a poisonous gas. b. Oxygen is a gas needed for combustion in its elemental form. c. When they combine they make vital liquid water.
14. I. Chemistry of LifeG. Molecules (type of compound #1) 1. Molecules: Group of atoms held together by energy of chemical bonds. a. Formed when different atoms share their outermost electrons. b. Sharing of electrons is called COVALENT BONDING. c. Water is an example of a molecule because the 2 hydrogen share electrons with 1 oxygen.
15. I. Chemistry of LifeH. Ions (Type of Compound #2) 1. Compounds that form when atoms of opposite charges called ions connect. a. Ions are atoms with a positive or a negative charge. 2. Anion a. When an atoms has more electrons than protons giving the atom an overall negative charge. 3. Cation a. If the atom has more protons than electrons; the atom now has a positive charge.
16. I. Chemistry of Life4. Ions of opposite charges attract one another and form IONIC COMPOUNDS.5. Example: Na+ + Cl- = NaCl (Table Salt)6. Ions are very important inside the human body.
17. I. Chemistry of LifeI. Mixtures 1. When two substances join together but keep their own properties. a. This is different than a compound!!! b. Examples: Blue and Red Marbles in a bag, Small rocks in river water, Iced Tea, etc. c. Mixtures can be separated by physical means!! d. We will discuss in class why compounds and mixtures are different!!! PAY ATTENTION!!
18. I. Chemistry of LifeJ. Solutions (Type of Mixture) 1. A solution is a special type of mixture. 2. A solution is when two or more substances are mixed together EVENLY. a. One substance is dissolved in another substance. b. Examples: Soda, Iced Tea, etc. c. A solution can be separated by physical means.
19. I. Chemistry of LifeK. Suspensions (Type of Mixture) 1. When two or more substances are mixed together but will eventually settle out over time. a. Example: Italian Salad Dressing will separate into oil and vinegar over time. b. Suspensions are different than solutions because solutions should not settle out over time!!!
20. I. Chemistry of LifeL. Food Pyramid 1. A chart explaining the types of foods and the amounts a person should have on a daily basis. 2. A balanced diet consists of several types of ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.
21. I. Chemistry of LifeM.Organic Compounds 1. Substance that contains Carbon and Hydrogen and are associated with living things. 2. Exceptions: Things that are non-living but were made from once living things. a. Example: Coal is made from dead and decaying plant materials.
22. I. Chemistry of Life3. There are four kinds of organic compounds. a. Carbohydrates b. Lipids (Fats) c. Proteins d. Nucleic Acids
23. I. Chemistry of LifeN. Carbohydrates 1. Made up of sugars and starches. 2. Job/Function: to supply energy for cell processes. a. The main energy source for the cell. 3. Examples: Potatoes, vegetables, fruits, breads, rice, and pasta. 4. Food Pyramid: most important part of diet in terms of quantity. (Eat more carbs than any other food group). 5. If a person or cell is active the carbohydrates you eat will be completely burned up during the course of the day.
25. I. Chemistry of LifeO. Lipids 1. Function/Job: An energy backup for cells. 2. If not used they are stored as a fat called cellulite. a. Once stored it is very hard for the body to lose. 3. Fats and Oils are examples of lipids. 4. Foods rich in lipids: Mayo, Salad Dressing, Ice Cream, Dairy products, Chocolate, Oil, Butter, Etc. 5. A human only needs a very small amount of lipids per day.
27. I. Chemistry of LifeP. Proteins 1. Function: Responsible for all chemical reactions that occur inside the human body!! 2. Made up of amino acids (20 common amino acids)
28. I. Chemistry of Life3. Special kinds of proteins called ENZYMES regulate the rate of chemical reactions. a. Example: Saliva helps break down carbohydrates in the mouth faster. b. Lactase helps break down mild products.4. Foods rich in proteins: Meats, fruits, veggies, fish, eggs, peanut butter, nuts.5. Vegetarians NEED to be careful to make sure they get enough protein in their diet!!
30. I. Chemistry of LifeQ. Nucleic Acids 1. Function: Responsible for all genetic information in cells. 2. Two Types of Nucleic Acids a. DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): Carries all the genetic information for the cell. FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS!! b. RNA (Ribonucleic Acid): Carries the DNA (plan) to all cell parts; also makes proteins and enzymes. 3. Nucleic Acids are the most complex of all organic compounds!!!
32. I. Chemistry of LifeR. Inorganic Compounds 1. Made from other elements besides water. 2. Normally they are simpler than organic compounds. 3. See chart page 71 to see the important inorganic compounds in the human body. 4. WATER is the most important INORGANIC compound for living things!! 5. Life is composed of at least 50% water. 6. Human cells are made of at least 70% water.
33. I. Chemistry of LifeS. Importance of Water 1. Animals can live for only days without water but weeks without food! 2. Every chemical reaction in the body needs to be in a water-like solution. a. Example: Blood 3. Water is composed of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. a. Because of this water has a positive and negative side!! b. Don’t worry…we will discuss this in 8th grade!!!