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Matter & Atomic Theory acloutier copyright 2011


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Chapter 3 Earth & Space Science 9th

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Matter & Atomic Theory acloutier copyright 2011

  1. 1. MATTER & ATOMIC THEORY Earth & Space Chapter 3 acloutier 2011 copyright Everything on Earth & beyond
  2. 2. Atoms are the smallest particle of an element and has all the characteristics of the element. <ul><li>consist of subatomic particles Democratus Greek </li></ul><ul><li>protons – a positive charged particle </li></ul><ul><li>neutron- no charge (neutral) </li></ul><ul><li>electrons- negatively charged particle </li></ul><ul><li>protons & neutrons are located in the nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>electrons are located in energy layers in the electron cloud outside of the nucleus </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  3. 3. Sodium Na symbol atomic number 11 atomic mass 22.990 = 23 (round up) add protons + neutron = atomic mass # acloutier 2011
  4. 4. 2 8 18 32 first four energy levels <ul><li>2 first energy level </li></ul><ul><li>8 second energy level </li></ul><ul><li>18 third energy level </li></ul><ul><li>32 fourth energy level </li></ul><ul><li>* some elements go up to seven energy levels surrounding the nucleus </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  5. 5. Valence electrons are the electrons in the atoms outermost energy level and they determine the behavior of different elements acloutier 2011
  6. 6. Valence electrons are the outermost electrons <ul><li>valence electrons determine the type of chemical behavior of the different elements </li></ul><ul><li>highly reactive are elements combine easily with other elements </li></ul><ul><li>inert elements do not combine easily with other elements because they have full outermost energy levels </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  7. 7. Isotopes elements have the same number of protons but, have different numbers of neutrons for variations in mass <ul><li>Carbon 6 atomic number 6 is the average mass of all carbons </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 C 12 C 14 > ( Carbon 12 is the most common naturally occurring isotope) </li></ul><ul><li>Isotopes have the same chemical properties of the element* </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable isotopes are said to be unstable and release radioactivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Radioactivity is a spontaneous process where a nucleus can lose protons and neutrons, change a proton to a neutron, or, a neutron into a proton. </li></ul><ul><li>Stars do this naturally and have created the various elements in the Periodic Table of elements </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  8. 8. STARS do this naturally and actually formed all the elements found in the Periodic Table acloutier 2011
  9. 9. Abundance of elements in the UNIVERSE <ul><li>hydrogen and helium are the main elements in STARS </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  10. 10. Abundance of elements in Earth’s crust: <ul><li>percent of elements </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  11. 11. Abundance of elements in atmosphere on Earth <ul><li>Percent of elements in atmosphere on Earth </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  12. 12. Compounds <ul><li>a compound is composed of atoms of two or more different elements that are chemically combined </li></ul><ul><li>compounds have totally different chemical properties than the elements that composed them </li></ul><ul><li>the stable state of the compound is created in the chemical bond , the forces that hold the compound together </li></ul><ul><li>Covalent bonds – are shared electrons in the outermost energy level </li></ul><ul><li>the atoms stay together because of the positive charge of the proton attracting the negatively charged electrons </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  13. 13. Covalent bonds > sharing an electron <ul><li>Covalent bonds occur when the outermost electron shell is not completely full </li></ul><ul><li>atoms become more stable when they have to share an electron and complete the outer shell </li></ul><ul><li>because the protons have a positive charge and the electrons a negative charge, they are attracted and hold together the molecules. </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  14. 14. Ionic bonds occur when atoms gain or lose an electron atoms that gain or lose electrons are called IONS <ul><li>Salt is formed from an ionic bond </li></ul><ul><li>Sodium and chlorine combine to create a new substance unlike the original elements chemical characteristics </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  15. 15. Polar molecule water is a covalent bond the atom does not share electrons equally <ul><li>The attraction of the hydrogen atoms to the oxygen atom is much stronger and the electrons spend more time near the oxygen atom </li></ul><ul><li>When atoms do not share equally, they are known as polar molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Polar bonds have a positive end and a negative end to the molecule </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is the positive end - Oxygen is the negative end of the polar molecule </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  16. 16. Ions have a positive or negative bond Opposites charges attract (always write the positive ion first) <ul><li>The net electrical charge - + or – charged ions, equals zero, each ion cancels each others charges to zero </li></ul><ul><li>Compounds formed by ionic bonds are known as ionic compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Two of the most important and common ionic bonds are silicate ions SO 4 (make up largest type of Earth rocks) </li></ul><ul><li>Carbonate ions CO 3 </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  17. 17. Opposites attract acloutier 2011
  18. 18. What can happen when atoms have … <ul><li>if an atom is more than half full (has four or more in it’s outermost shell), it tends to form a negative ion </li></ul><ul><li>when atoms lose a valence electron it tends to become a positive ion having more protons </li></ul><ul><li>if an atom is less than half full in its outermost electron shell, it tends to lose its valence electrons and become positively charged ion </li></ul><ul><li>more negatively charged particles = negatively ion - </li></ul><ul><li>more positively charged particle = positive ion + </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  19. 19. Acids > 1 - 6.9 range Bases > 7 .1 - 14 range Distilled Water is neutral at 7 acloutier 2011
  20. 20. Acids are a solution containing a substance that produces hydrogen ions H+ in water 1 > 6.9 acloutier 2011
  21. 21. Bases produce hydroxide ions OH – in solutions acloutier 2011 Too many mice ! 5 flies, 2 worms, 6 minnows…hand me the TUMS please
  22. 22. Mixtures can be separated physically acloutier 2011
  23. 23. States of Matter exist in four states <ul><li>Solid > have a definite shape and are densely packed matter </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid > take on the shapes of their containers (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas > lave large spaces between particles and move freely </li></ul><ul><li>Plasma > heated to temperatures of 5,000 *C collisions knock atoms together that the electrons are knocked away from atoms. Found in Stars, Sun, lightning, light bulbs, neon signs </li></ul><ul><li>* more plasma in the solar system and universe than any other matter ! </li></ul><ul><li>Can you figure out why ? </li></ul>acloutier 2011
  24. 24. E = mc² First Law of Thermodynamics <ul><li>The Conservation of Matter and Energy states that matter can not be created nor destroyed , but, can be changed from one form of matter to another </li></ul><ul><li>Energy can not be created nor destroyed, but, can be changed from one form to another </li></ul>acloutier 2011 Energy times the speed of light…don’t blink !
  25. 25. Time for some worksheets the end acloutier 2011