Green Book 3

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Green Book 3

  1. 1. Section 3 Biochemical Concepts Mr. McCammon Biology I and SSR
  2. 2. Section 3.1 <ul><li>I. Characteristics of Living Things </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A. One or more cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B. Have a way to reproduce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C. Grow and develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D. Universal genetic code </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E. Obtain material and use the energy from it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>F. Maintain a stable internal environment (homeostasis) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>G. Respond to changes in the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>H. Change over time </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Section 3.1 Practice <ul><li>Complete 1-8 on a sheet of paper </li></ul><ul><li>Turn the sheet into the box. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life </li></ul><ul><li>A. Atoms make up all matter in the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Atoms are made up of : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Protons – positive charge and found in the nucleus (center) of the atom. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Neutrons – no charge and found in the nucleus (center) of the atom. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Electrons – negative charge and found orbiting the nucleus (center) of the atom. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Comparing Electrons, Protons, and Neutrons 0 Electron Shells - Electron 1 Nucleus 0 Neutron 1 Nucleus + Proton Mass Location Charge Sub-atomic Particle
  6. 6. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Electrons closer to the nucleus are held tighter than those further away. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Atoms can gain, lose, or share electrons with other atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>2. This is the basis for chemical reactions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><li>1. Making and/or breaking chemical bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Chemical bonds are formed when outer electrons are attracted, shared, or transferred from one atom to another in order to fill outer shell electrons. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>E. The periodic table </li></ul><ul><li>1. All known elements </li></ul><ul><li>2. 92 natural occurring elements </li></ul><ul><li>3. Metals, non-metals, metalloids </li></ul><ul><li>4. Atomic mass, atomic number, symbol, and name. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 3.2
  10. 10. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>F. Making electron diagrams </li></ul><ul><li>1. Find the element on the periodic table and note the atomic number. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Atomic number is the number to protons. </li></ul><ul><li>3. The number of protons = the number of electrons. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>F. Making Electron diagrams (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Helium’s atomic number is 2 therefore it has 2 protons and 2 electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Draw protons in the center and electrons orbiting nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>a . 2 electrons in 1 st energy level </li></ul><ul><li>b. 8 electrons in 2 nd energy level </li></ul><ul><li>c. 8 electrons in 3 rd energy level </li></ul>
  12. 12. Section 3.2 F +9 <ul><li>Place the number of protons in the nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Put 2 electrons in the 1 st level, 8 in the second. </li></ul>3. Continue until all the electrons are accounted for.
  13. 13. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Write the electron diagrams for: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Chlorine </li></ul><ul><li>2. Sodium </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lithium </li></ul><ul><li>4. Carbon </li></ul><ul><li>5. Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Turn them into the box. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>G. Two types of Bonds </li></ul><ul><li>H. Ionic bonds result from atoms that gain or lose electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>1. When an electron is lost, a + results. </li></ul><ul><li>2. When an electron is gained, a – results. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>H. Ionic bonds (cont) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Goal is to fill an outer shell. To reach the magic number of 8 (or 2 for the 1 st energy level) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Positive and negative attract. </li></ul><ul><li>5. When an atom gains or loses an electron it is called an ion. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Chemistry of Life (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>I. Covalent Bonds result from the sharing of electrons. </li></ul><ul><li>1. Outer shell electrons overlap </li></ul><ul><li>2. Form molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Organic molecules, water, complex macromolecules are examples. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Section 3.2 <ul><li>Complete Practice 1-6 on page 71 </li></ul><ul><li>Turn it into the box. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Section 3.3 <ul><li>The Chemistry of Water </li></ul><ul><li>A. Chemical formula is H 2 0 – made up of two molecules of hydrogen and one oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Most abundant compound in living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>C. Covalently bonded. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Section 3.3 <ul><li>The Chemistry of Water </li></ul><ul><li>D. Properties of Water (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>1. Transparent to let sunlight through to aquatic organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Can form ions. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Universal solvent – can dissolve many substances </li></ul><ul><li>4. Cohesion – Water sticks to water </li></ul><ul><li>5. Adhesion – Water sticks to stuff </li></ul><ul><li>6. Temperature stabilizer – Can absorb lots of heat before it changes temp. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Section 3.3 <ul><li>The Chemistry of Water (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>E. The electrons are not shared evenly between the hydrogen and the oxygen molecules resulting in the oxygen end having a slight negative charge and the hydrogen having a slight positive charge. This makes water a polar covalent bond, having a slightly positive pole and a slightly negative pole. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Section 3.3 <ul><li>The Chemistry of Water (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>F. Since the slight positive end will attract the slight negative end, water molecules will stick together (cohesion). </li></ul><ul><li>G. Water can form weak hydrogen bonds that can hold water to other materials (adhesion). </li></ul><ul><li>H. Liquid at room temp. and floats when frozen </li></ul>
  22. 22. Section 3.3 <ul><li>The Chemistry of Water (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>I. Water will dissolve most all materials except _____. </li></ul><ul><li>J. 65 to 70% of human body and up to 80% in some organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Complete Practice on page 73 1-8 </li></ul><ul><li>Turn it into the box. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Section 3.4 <ul><li>pH </li></ul><ul><li>A. Water forms ions. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Water will split into H+ and OH- </li></ul><ul><li>C. pH measures the concentration of H+ in solution. </li></ul><ul><li>D. pH scale goes from 0 to 14 with 7 being neutral (H+ is equal to OH-) </li></ul>
  24. 24. Section 3.4 <ul><li>pH (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>E. Any solution less than 7 is an acid. </li></ul><ul><li>1. A compound that forms H+ in solution is an acid. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The lower the number the stronger the acid. 2.5 is a stronger acid than 4.5. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Section 3.4 <ul><li>pH (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>F. Any solution more than 7 is a base (or alkaline) </li></ul><ul><li>1. A compound that forms OH- in solution is a base. </li></ul><ul><li>2. The higher the number the stronger the base. 12.5 is stronger than 8. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Section 3.4 <ul><li>Complete 1-10 on page 74 and 1-8 on page 75. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn it into the box. </li></ul>

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