Emotions are a mix of 1) physiological activation, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3) conscious experience.
Does physiological arousal precede or follow your emotional experience?
Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion (feeling)?
When you become happy, your heart starts beating faster. First comes conscious awareness, then comes physiological activity.
William James and Carl Lange proposed an idea that was diametrically opposed to the common-sense view. The James-Lange Theory proposes that physiological activity precedes the emotional experience.
Walter Cannon and Phillip Bard questioned the James-Lange Theory and proposed that an emotion-triggering stimulus and the body's arousal take place simultaneously.
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer proposed yet another theory which suggests our physiology and cognitions create emotions. Emotions have two factors–physical arousal and cognitive label.
Life without emotions
On Star Trek, who is better off: Mr. Spock or Dr. McCoy?
What do we loose when we loose our ability to feel emotions? Watch the video
We know that emotions involve bodily responses. Some of these responses are very noticeable (butterflies in our stomach when fear arises), but others are more difficult to discern (neurons activated in the brain).
Emotions and Autonomic Nervous System
During an emotional experience, our autonomic nervous system mobilizes energy in the body that arouses us.
Arousal and Performance
Arousal in short spurts is adaptive. We perform better under moderate arousal, but optimal performance varies with task difficulty.
How much arousal do you need in your life?
Take the Sensation Seeking Scale and score it on the next slide
Scoring the Sensation Seeking Scale
Score by counting the number of times that you answered True
Scores can range from 0 to 10 with higher scores reflecting a greater tendency towards sensation-seeking
0-3 = low
4-7 = moderate
8-10 = high
Four forms of sensation-seeking
Thrill and adventure seeking: use risky, but socially acceptable, activities for excitement
Experience-seeking: seek sensation through the mind, the senses, and a non-conforming life style, may use travel and art for experiences
Disinhibition: seek escape through social drinking and partying, need people for stimulation
Boredom susceptibility: low tolerance for repetitious or constant experiences
Physiological responses related to the emotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom are very similar.
Excitement and fear involve a similar physiological arousal. M. Grecco/ Stock Boston
Cognition and Emotion
What is the connection between how we think (cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?
Can we change our emotions by changing our thinking?
Cognition Can Define Emotion
An arousal response to one event spills over into our response to the next event.
Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, which may lead to rioting. AP Photo/ Nati Harnik Reuters/ Corbis
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion
A subliminally presented happy face can encourage subjects to drink more than when presented with an angry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003).
Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a) or through the cortex (b) for analysis.
Cognition Does Not Always Precede Emotion
When fearful eyes were subliminally presented to subjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels of activity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).
Courtesy of Paul J. Whalen, PhD, Dartmouth College, www.whalenlab.info
Two Routes to Emotion
Zajonc and LeDoux (1984) emphasize that some emotions are immediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus, Schachter, and Singer (1998) emphasize that appraisal also determines emotions.
Expressed Emotion Emotions are expressed on the face, by the body, and by the intonation of voice. Is this non-verbal language of emotion universal?
How aware are you of your own moods?
Take the Mood Awareness Scale and score it using the next slide
Scoring Mood Awareness
Reverse the numbers that you gave yourself for items 1, 5, 9, and 10
Add the numbers for items 3, 4, 6, 8, and 10 to assess your level of mood monitoring, which is the tendency to scrutinize and focus on your own moods
Add the numbers for items 1, 2, 5, 7, and 9 to measure mood labeling, which is the ability to identify and categorize your own moods
What does my score mean?
High mood monitors show greater self-consciousness, are more neurotic, have lower self-esteem, and experience greater negative affect.
High mood labelers tend to be less socially anxious, less neurotic, more extraverted, and more nonverbally expressive, and to experience greater positive affect.
Most of us are good at deciphering emotions through non-verbal communication. In a crowd of faces a single angry face will “pop out” faster than a single happy face (Fox et al. 2000).
Gender, Emotion, and Nonverbal Behavior
Women are much better at discerning nonverbal emotions than men. When shown sad, happy, and scary film clips women expressed more emotions than men.
Detecting and Computing Emotion
Most people find it difficult to detect deceiving emotions. Even trained professionals like police officers, psychiatrists, judges, and polygraphists detected deceiving emotions only 54% of the time.
Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine? Dr. Paul Elkman, University of California at San Francisco
Hindu Dance In classical Hindu dance, the body is trained to effectively convey 10 different emotions. Network Photographers/ Alamy
Emotions are Adaptive
Darwin speculated that our ancestors communicated with facial expressions in the absence of language. Nonverbal facial expressions led to our ancestor’s survival.
Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
How easily are you disgusted?
Take the test and find out
Add your false responses to items 2, 9, and 13 and your true responses to the remaining items from 1 to 16
Add up all your ratings for items 17 – 32 and divide that total by 2
Add your scores for parts one and two
Scores can range from 0 to 32 with higher scores reflecting greater disgust sensitivity
Mean scores for American men = 14 and American women = 18
Analyzing Emotion Analysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
Dimensions of Emotion People generally divide emotions into two dimensions.
Fear Fear can torment us, rob us of sleep, and preoccupy our thinking. However, fear can be adaptive – it makes us run away from danger, it brings us closer as groups, and it protects us from injury and harm.
Learning Fear Watson (1878-1958) We learn fear in two ways, either through conditioning and/or through observation . By Monika Suteski
The Biology of Fear Some fears are easier to learn than others. The amygdala in the brain associates emotions like fear with certain situations. Courtesy of National Geographic Magazine and Laboratory of Neuro Imaging (LONI) at UCLA. Art and brain modeling by Amanda Hammond, Jacopo Annese, and Authur Toga, LONI; spider art by Joon-Hyuck Kim
Take the fear survey
Compare your scores with your classmates and with intro psych students at Temple University on the next slide
M F M F
1. 1.5 1.7 8. 2.6 2.7
2. 2.4 2.6 9. 2.7 2.4
3. 2.0 2.1 10. 2.1 2.0
4. 1.5 1.6 11. 2.2 2.1
5. 2.0 2.1 12. 2.4 2.7
6. 1.9 2.1 13. 1.5 2.0
7. 2.2 3.1 14. 1.8 1.9
More mean scores
M F M F
15. 2.0 2.8 22. 2.3 2.3
16. 1.6 1.8 23. 1.5 1.7
17. 2.5 2.7 24. 1.6 1.7
18. 1.7 2.1 25. 1.4 1.4
19. 1.6 1.8 26. 1.3 1.5
20. 2.0 2.1 27. 1.4 2.1
21. 2.5 2.6 28. 1.6 1.7
Final mean scores
29. 1.9 2.7
30. 1.1 1.1
31. 1.8 1.9
32. 1.1 1.4
33. 2.2 2.4
34. 2.3 2.3
35. 2.0 2.1
Anger Anger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19 B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-149 B.C.).
Causes of Anger
People generally become angry with friends and loved ones who commit wrongdoings, especially if they are willful, unjustified, and avoidable.
People are also angered by foul odors, high temperatures, traffic jams, and aches and pains.
Cultural & Gender Differences
Boys respond to anger by moving away from that situation, while girls talk to their friends or listen to music.
Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to an intolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.
The expression of anger is more encouraged in cultures that do not promote group behavior than in cultures that do promote group behavior.
How angry are you
Take the Multidimensional Anger Inventory and score it, using information on the next slide
How to score
Reverse the numbers that you gave youself for items 2, 15, 23, 24 and 25
Then total all the numbers
Male and female college students scored a mean of 71.18
Dimensions of Anger
Figure out the dimensions of your anger by looking at these subgroups:
Frequency: items 1, 6, 9, 14, and 17
Duration: items 22 and 25
Magnitude: items 2, 10, 18 and 26
Range of anger eliciting situations: item 30
Hostile outlook: 5, 8, 13, 16, 21 and 28
Mode of expression
Figure out how you express your anger by looking at these subgroups:
Anger-in: items 3, 20, 23, 24, 27 and 29
Anger- out: items 4, 7, 12, 15 and 19
Guilt about expressing anger: items 11 and 29
Brooding: items 15, 19, 20 and 23
Anger discuss: item 24
Now that we know how angry you are…
You can figure out how comfortable you are with your anger by taking the Anger Discomfort Scale and scoring it on the next slide
Reverse the numnbers that you gave yourself for items 5, 10 and 11
Total the numbers for all 15 items
Scores can range from 15 to 60 with higher scores reflecting greater discomfort with your own anger
Undergraduates had a mean score of 30.6 with no gender difference
Happiness People who are happy perceive the world as being safer. They are able to make decisions easily, are more cooperative, rate job applicants more favorably, and live healthier, energized, and more satisfied lives.
Feel-Good, Do-Good Phenomenon
When we feel happy we are more willing to help others.
How happy are you?
Take the “Emotions Questionnaire” that is on the back of your “Fear Survey” and score it on the next slide
Scoring – how do you compare?
Combination score = (scale score x 10 plus happy %) divided by 2
Mean scores for community college students were:
Combination score: 61.7
Scale score: 7
Happy percent: 54
Unhappy percent: 21
Neutral percent: 25
Characteristics of happy people
Number a paper 1-10
List the initials of 10 people who you know well
Write an H next to their name if you think that they are generally happy
Write a N next to their name if you think that they are generally unhappy
Follow my oral directions for the rest
Subjective well-being is the self-perceived feeling of happiness or satisfaction with life. Research on new positive psychology is on the rise.
Emotional Ups and Downs Our positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7 hours after waking up. Negative moods stay more or less the same throughout the day.
Emotional Ups and Downs Over the long run, our emotional ups and downs tend to balance. Although grave diseases can bring individuals emotionally down, most people adapt. Courtesy of Anna Putt
Values & Life Satisfaction Students who value love more than money report higher life satisfaction.
Happiness & Prior Experience
Adaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like the adaptation to brightness, volume, and touch, people adapt to income levels. “Satisfaction has a short half-life” (Ryan, 1999).
Happiness is not only relative to our past, but also to our comparisons with others. Relative Deprivation is the perception that we are relatively worse off than those we compare ourselves with.