Where do emotions come from? Why do we have them? What are they made of?
Preview Question 1: What are the components of an emotion?
1) Cannon suggested that body’s responses were not distinct enough to evoke different emotions. 2) Physiological responses seemed too slow to trigger sudden emotions.
Preview Question 2: What physiological changes accompany emotions?
Preview Question 3: Do different emotions activate different physiological responses?
Preview Question 4: To experience emotions, must we consciously interpret and label them?
Preview Question 5: How do we communicate nonverbally?
Preview Question 6: Are nonverbal expressions of emotion universally understood?
Preview Question 7: Do our facial expressions influence our feelings?
Preview Question 8: What are the causes and consequences of anger?
Preview Question 9: What are the causes and consequences of happiness?
Preview Question 10: What is stress?
Preview Question 11: What events provoke stress response?
Preview Question 12: Why are some of us more prone than others to coronary heart disease?
Preview Question 13: How does stress make us more vulnerable to disease?
Preview Question 14: What factors affect our ability to cope with stress?
Preview Question 15: What tactics can we use to manage stress and reduce stress-related ailments?
Chapter 13 and 14 emotions, stress, and health
1EmotionsChapter 13Stress, and HealthChapter 14
2Emotions, Stress, and HealthTheories of EmotionEmbodied Emotion Emotions and The AutonomicNervous System Physiological Similarities AmongSpecific Emotions Physiological Differences AmongSpecific Emotions Cognition And Emotion
3Emotions, Stress, and HealthExpressed Emotion Detecting Emotion Gender, Emotion, and NonverbalBehavior Culture and EmotionalExpression The Effects of Facial Expressions
4Emotions, Stress, and HealthExperienced Emotion Anger HappinessStress and Health Stress and Stressors Stress and the Heart Stress and Susceptibility toDisease
5Emotions, Stress, and HealthPromoting Health Coping With Stress Managing Stress Effects
6EmotionEmotions are our body’s adaptive response.
7Theories of EmotionEmotions are a mix of 1) physiologicalactivation, 2) expressive behaviors, and 3)conscious experience.
8Controversy1) Does physiological arousal precede or followyour emotional experience?2) Does cognition (thinking) precede emotion(feeling)?
9Commonsense ViewWhen you become happy, your heart startsbeating faster. First comes consciousawareness, then comes physiological activity.BobSacha
10James-Lange TheoryWilliam James and CarlLange proposed anidea that wasdiametrically opposedto the common-senseview. The James-LangeTheory proposes thatphysiological activityprecedes the emotionalexperience.
11Cannon-Bard TheoryWalter Cannon andPhillip Bardquestioned the James-Lange Theory andproposed that anemotion-triggeringstimulus and thebodys arousal takeplace simultaneously.
12Two-Factor TheoryStanley Schachter andJerome Singerproposed yet anothertheory which suggestsour physiology andcognitions createemotions. Emotionshave two factors–physical arousal andcognitive label.
13Embodied EmotionWe know that emotions involve bodilyresponses. Some of these responses are verynoticeable (butterflies in our stomach when feararises), but others are more difficult to discern(neurons activated in the brain).
14Emotions and the AutonomicNervous SystemDuring an emotional experience, our autonomicnervous system mobilizes energy in the bodythat arouses us.
15Arousal and PerformanceArousal in short spurts is adaptive. Weperform better under moderate arousal, butoptimal performance varies with taskdifficulty.
16Physiological SimilaritiesPhysiological responses related to theemotions of fear, anger, love, and boredom arevery similar.Excitement and fear involve a similarphysiological arousal. M.Grecco/StockBoston
17Physiological DifferencesPhysical responses, like finger temperature andmovement of facial muscles, change during fear, rage,and joy.The amygdala shows differences in activation duringthe emotions of anger and rage. Activity of the lefthemisphere (happy) is different from the right(depressed) for emotions.
18Cognition and EmotionWhat is the connection between how we think(cognition) and how we feel (emotion)?Can we change our emotions by changing ourthinking?
19Cognition Can Define EmotionAn arousal response to one event spills over intoour response to the next event.Arousal from a soccer match can fuel anger, whichmay lead to rioting.APPhoto/NatiHarnikReuters/Corbis
20Cognition Does Not Always PrecedeEmotionA subliminally presented happy face can encouragesubjects to drink more than when presented with anangry face (Berridge & Winkeilman, 2003).Emotions are felt directly through the amygdala (a)or through the cortex (b) for analysis.
21Cognition Does Not Always PrecedeEmotionWhen fearful eyes were subliminally presented tosubjects, fMRI scans revealed higher levels ofactivity in the amygdala (Whalen et al. 2004).CourtesyofPaulJ.Whalen,PhD,DartmouthCollege,www.whalenlab.info
22Two Routes to EmotionZajonc and LeDoux emphasize that some emotions areimmediate, without conscious appraisal. Lazarus,Schachter, and Singer emphasize that appraisal alsodetermines emotions.
23Expressed EmotionEmotions are expressed on the face, by the body,and by the intonation of voice. Is this nonverballanguage of emotion universal?
24Detecting EmotionMost of us are good at deciphering emotionsthrough nonverbal communication. In a crowd offaces a single angry face will “pop out” fasterthan a single happy face (Fox et al, 2000).
25Detecting EmotionHard-to-control facial muscles reveal signs ofemotions you may be trying to conceal. A feignedsmile may continue for more than 4-5 secondswhile a genuine smile will have faded by then.Which of Paul Ekman’s smiles is genuine?Dr.PaulElkman,UniversityofCaliforniaatSanFrancisco
26Hindu DanceIn classical Hindu dance, the body is trained toeffectively convey 10 different emotions.NetworkPhotographers/Alamy
27Gender, Emotion, and NonverbalBehaviorWomen are much better at discerning nonverbalemotions than men. When shown sad, happy, andscary film clips women expressed more emotionsthan men.
28Culture and Emotional ExpressionWhen culturally diverse people were shown basicfacial expressions, they did fairly well atrecognizing them (Matsumoto & Ekman, 1989).Elkman&Matsumoto,JapaneseandCaucasianFacialExpressionofEmotion
29Emotions are AdaptiveDarwin speculatedthat our ancestorscommunicated withfacial expressions inthe absence oflanguage. Nonverbalfacial expressions ledto our ancestor’ssurvival.Charles Darwin (1809-1882)
30Analyzing EmotionAnalysis of emotions are carried on different levels.
31The Effects of Facial ExpressionIf facial expressions are manipulated, like furrowingbrows, people feel sad while looking at sad pictures.Attaching two golf tees to the face and making their tipstouch causes the brow to furrow.CourtesyofLouisSchake/MichaelKausman/TheNewYorkTimesPictures
32Experienced EmotionIzard (1977) isolated 10 emotions. Most ofthem are present in infancy, except for contempt,shame, and guilt.LewMerrim/PhotoResearchers,Inc.NancyBrown/TheImageBankTomMcCarthy/RainbowPatrickDonehue/PhotoResearchers,Inc.MarcGrimberg/TheImageBankBobDaemmrich/TheImageWorksMichaelNewman/PhotoEdit
33AngerAnger “carries the mind away,” (Virgil, 70-19B.C.), but “makes any coward brave,” (Cato 234-149 B.C.).
34Causes of Anger1. People generally become angry with friendsand loved ones who commit wrongdoings,especially if they are willful, unjustified, andavoidable.2. People are also angered by foul odors, hightemperatures, traffic jams, and aches andpains.
35Catharsis HypothesisTheory: Venting anger through action or fantasyachieves an emotional release or “catharsis.”Reality: Expressing anger breeds more anger, andthrough reinforcement it is habit-forming.
36Cultural & Gender Differences1. Boys respond to anger by moving away from thatsituation, while girls talk to their friends or listen tomusic.2. Anger breeds prejudice. The 9/11 attacks led to anintolerance towards immigrants and Muslims.3. The expression of anger is more encouraged incultures that do not promote group behavior than incultures that do promote group behavior.WolfgangKaehler
37HappinessPeople who are happyperceive the world asbeing safer. They areable to make decisionseasily, are morecooperative, rate jobapplicants morefavorably, and livehealthier, energized,and more satisfiedlives.
38Feel-Good, Do-Good PhenomenonWhen we feel happy we are more willing to helpothers.
39Subjective Well-BeingSubjective well-being is the self-perceived feelingof happiness or satisfaction with life. Research onnew positive psychology is on the rise.http://web.fineliving.com
40Emotional Ups and DownsOur positive moods rise to a maximum within 6-7hours after waking up. Negative moods stay moreor less the same throughout the day.
41Emotional Ups and DownsOver the long run, our emotional ups and downstend to balance. Although grave diseases can bringindividuals emotionally down, most people adapt.CourtesyofAnnaPutt
42Wealth and Well-beingMany people in the West believe that if they werewealthier, they would be happier. However, datasuggests that they would only be happytemporarily.
43Wealth and Well-being1. In affluent societies, people with more moneyare happier than people who struggle fortheir basic needs.2. People in rich countries are happier thanpeople in poor countries.3. A sudden rise in financial conditions makespeople happy.However, people who live in poverty or in slums arealso satisfied with their life.
44Does Money Buy Happiness?Wealth is like health:Its utter absence canbreed misery, yethaving it is noguarantee of happiness.
45Happiness & SatisfactionSubjective well-being (happiness + satisfaction)measured in 82 countries shows Puerto Rico andMexico (poorer countries) at the top of the list.
46Values & Life SatisfactionStudents who value love more than money reporthigher life satisfaction.
47Happiness & Prior ExperienceAdaptation-Level Phenomenon: Like theadaptation to brightness, volume, and touch,people adapt to income levels. “Satisfaction has ashort half-life” (Ryan, 1999).
48Happiness is not only relative to our past, butalso to our comparisons with others. RelativeDeprivation is the perception that we arerelatively worse off than those we compareourselves with.Happiness & Others’ Attainments
49Predictors of HappinessWhy are some people generally more happythan others?
50Stress and HealthPsychological states cause physical illness. Stressis any circumstance (real or perceived) thatthreatens a person’s well-being.When we feel severe stress, our ability to cope with it isimpaired. LeeStone/Corbis
51Stress can be adaptive. In a fearful or stress-causing situation, we can run away and save ourlives.Stress can be maladaptive. If it is prolonged(chronic stress), it increases our risk of illness andhealth problems.Stress and Health
52Stress and StressorsStress is a slippery concept. At times it is thestimulus (missing an appointment) and at othertimes it is a response (sweating while taking atest).
53Stress and StressorsStress is not merely a stimulus or a response. It isa process by which we appraise and cope withenvironmental threats and challenges.When short-lived or taken as a challenge, stressors mayhave positive effects. However, if stress is threatening orprolonged, it can be harmful.BobDaemmrich/TheImageWorks
54The Stress Response SystemCannon proposed thatthe stress response(fast) was a fight-or-flight response markedby the outpouring ofepinephrine andnorepinephrine from theinner adrenal glands,increasing heart andrespiration rates,mobilizing sugar andfat, and dulling pain.
55General Adaptation SyndromeAccording to Selye, a stress response to any kind ofstimulation is similar. The stressed individual goesthrough three phases.EPA/YuriKochetkov/Landov
56Stressful Life EventsCatastrophic Events: Catastrophic events likeearthquakes, combat stress, and floods leadindividuals to become depressed, sleepless, andanxious.
57Significant Life ChangesThe death of a loved one, a divorce, a loss of job,or a promotion may leave individuals vulnerableto disease.
58Daily HasslesRush hour traffic, long lines, job stress, andbecoming burnt-out are the most significantsources of stress and can damage health.
59Stress and the HeartStress that leads to elevated blood pressure mayresult in coronary heart disease, a clogging of thevessels that nourish the heart muscle.Plaque incoronary arteryArteryclogged
60Personality TypesType A is a term used for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, andanger-prone people. Type B refers to easygoing,relaxed people (Friedman and Rosenman, 1974).Type A personalities are more likely to developcoronary heart disease.
61Pessimism and Heart DiseasePessimistic adult men are twice as likely todevelop heart disease over a 10-year period(Kubzansky et al., 2001).
62Stress & Susceptibility to DiseaseA psychophysiological illness is any stress-relatedphysical illness such as hypertension and someheadaches.Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) is a developingfield in which the health effects of psychological,neural, and endocrine processes on the immunesystem are studied.
63PsychoneuroimmunologyB lymphocytes fight bacterial infections, Tlymphocytes attack cancer cells and viruses, andmicrophages ingest foreign substances. Duringstress, energy is mobilized away from theimmune system making it vulnerable.LennartNilsson/BoehringerIngelheinInternationalGmbH
64Stress and ColdsPeople with the highest life stress scores were alsothe most vulnerable when exposed to anexperimental cold virus.
65Stress and AIDSStress and negative emotions may accelerate theprogression from human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) to acquired immune deficiency syndrome(AIDS).UNAIDS/G.Pirozzi
66Stress and CancerStress does not create cancer cells. Researchersdisagree on whether stress influences theprogression of cancer. However, they do agreethat avoiding stress and having a hopeful attitudecannot reverse advanced cancer.
67Health-Related ConsequencesStress can have a variety of health-relatedconsequences.KathleenFinlay/Masterfile
68Behavioral MedicinePsychologists and physicians have developed aninterdisciplinary field of behavioral medicinethat integrates behavioral knowledge withmedical knowledge.Mind and body interact; everything psychological issimultaneously physiological.
69Promoting HealthPromoting health is generally defined as theabsence of disease. We only think of healthwhen we are diseased. However, healthpsychologists say that promoting health beginsby preventing illness and enhancing well-being,which is a constant endeavor.
70Coping with StressReducing stress by changing events that causestress or by changing how we react to stress iscalled problem-focused coping.Emotion-focused coping is when we cannotchange a stressful situation, and we respond byattending to our own emotional needs.
71Perceived ControlResearch with rats and humans indicates thatthe absence of control over stressors is apredictor of health problems.
72Explanatory StylePeople with an optimistic (instead ofpessimistic) explanatory style tend to have morecontrol over stressors, cope better with stressfulevents, have better moods, and have a strongerimmune system.
73Social SupportSupportive family members, marriage partners,and close friends help people cope with stress.Their immune functioning calms thecardiovascular system and lowers blood pressure.BobDaemmrich/Stock,Boston
74Managing Stress EffectsHaving a sense of control, an optimisticexplanatory style, and social support can reducestress and improve health.
75Aerobic ExerciseCan aerobic exerciseboost spirits? Manystudies suggest thataerobic exercise canelevate mood and well-being because aerobicexercise raises energy,increases self-confidence, and lowerstension, depression, andanxiety.
76Biofeedback, Relaxation, andMeditationBiofeedback systems useelectronic devices toinform people about theirphysiological responsesand gives them the chanceto bring their response to ahealthier range. Relaxationand meditation havesimilar effects in reducingtension and anxiety.
77Life-Style ModificationModifying a Type-A lifestyle may reduce therecurrence of heart attacks.GhislainandMarieDavidDeLossy/GettyImages
78Spirituality & Faith CommunitiesRegular religious attendance has been a reliablepredictor of a longer life span with a reducedrisk of dying.
79Intervening FactorsInvestigators suggest there are three factors thatconnect religious involvement and better health.