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  1. 1. Punctuating Words<br />Notes from The Well-Tempered Sentence<br />Karen Elizabeth Gordon<br />Lapsing into Comma by Bill Walsh<br />Woe is I by Patricia O’Connor<br />
  2. 2. Who needs words when we have this flasher!<br /> !<br />
  3. 3. An Exclamation Point<br />Begins with the writer’s emotions and intentions and demands that the reader feels them too.<br />Loud noises, sudden actions.<br />Thwack!<br />Apology, endearment, reproach, menace, discovery, supplication, protest, name-calling, irony, dread and astonishment.<br />Verb-less sentences.<br />Interrogatory sentences.<br />
  4. 4. Let’s Try It Out!<br />Look at his cumbersome biceps!<br />His very own flesh and blood!<br />Stop acerbating me!<br />Aargh!<br />How did you pour your big body into that paper airplane!<br />Ooh-la- la!<br />
  5. 5. A Period<br />A period is the closing mark for declarative sentences, mildly imperative sentences, and verb-less sentences that are not questioning or exciting.<br />There were never enough bodies around for all the souls who wanted to jump in them.<br />Come here, you little rascal.<br />His own mother, too.<br />
  6. 6. A comma<br />A comma is a delicate kink in time, a pause within a sentence, a chance to catch your breath.<br />I fondled his lapel, and I caressed his socks.<br />
  7. 7. Compounds & Hyphenation?<br />Tabletop?<br />Table top?<br />Table-top? <br />You have to look it up in the dictionary.<br />
  8. 8. Compounds are formed differently with different parts of speech.<br />Compound nouns follow no particular logic. Check your style-book and your dictionary, and if a compound isn’t listed in either, then it’s two words—unless it’s a verb-plus—preposition formation.<br />Backache, backbeat, backbite and back seat back pain<br />Back yard (noun) Backyard (adjective<br />Backyard barbecue<br />We played in the back yard.<br />
  9. 9. Verb plus proposition compound nouns<br />When something is made over, it’s a make-over; when something is built up, it’s a buildup; when someone is knocked down, it’s a knockdown; when someone breaks in, it’s a break-in; when you print something out, it’s a printout.<br />Verb versus noun---do you see the difference?<br />
  10. 10. Compound Verbs should be hyphenated!<br />Holyfield head-butted his opponent.<br />I copy-edited the story.<br />She pole-vaulted.<br />
  11. 11. Compound modifiers generally must be hyphenated<br />A victory on the home field is a home-field victory. <br />There are exceptions to the hyphenate-all-compound-modifiers rule: <br />Single proper noun<br />Single expression contained in quotations marks<br />Foreign-language phrases<br />Percentages and dollar amounts<br />And then just exceptions that editors use<br />
  12. 12. Exceptions<br />High school graduate<br />Clinton administration officials<br />Ice cream cone<br />Real estate agent<br />Law enforcement officer<br />Health care plan<br />
  13. 13. Some editors are phobic of hyphens<br />Have a rule that eliminates the hyphen from modifiers unless doing so would result in confusion.<br />Orange juice salesman<br />Orange-juice salesman<br />Orange salesman?<br />Small business man<br />Small-business man<br />
  14. 14. Fool’s Compounds<br />Grilled cheese sandwich<br />Is not grilled-cheese sandwich or a sandwich of grilled cheese<br />Color tv sets not color-tv sets or sets of color tv<br />
  15. 15. Two Adjectives and a Comma<br />A comma can be inserted between two adjectives if an “and” can be inserted between them.<br />Peachy, creamy complexion<br />Peachy and creamy complexion<br />WRONG:<br />Peachy-creamy complexion is not a complexion of peachy creamy…..<br />
  16. 16. Think About The Three Doubles<br />Adjective-adjective noun<br />Adjective adjective noun<br />Adjective, adjective noun<br />
  17. 17. A hyphen connects some compound words used as nouns and adjectives.<br />This was a curiosity-provoking peepshow said the pseudo sophisticated ball of fire to the pink-faced stick-in-the-mud as they cuddled half-heartedly over a pint of beer in a gothic-hole-in-the-wall.<br />
  18. 18. A hyphen is not used when a compound adjective or modifier follows the noun.<br />He pounded on her ill-tempered clavicles.<br />His clavicles were ill tempered.<br />The starry-eyed sycophant prowled about…<br />The sycophant looked starry eyed.<br />
  19. 19. When a compound begins with an adverb ending in “ly”, no hyphen is allowed.<br />A freakishly attired ombudsman…<br />
  20. 20. What to Do? Look below for a smattering of compound words:<br />No-win situation<br />Painkiller<br />Archfiend<br />Star-crossed<br />Bankroll<br />Credit card<br />Amateur night<br />Razzmatazz<br />
  21. 21. Look It UP in the Dictionary.<br />
  22. 22. If you are compounding your own perceptions into new words—hyphenate!<br />I was lurch-left by his abnegation.<br />They broke the story with such extra-extra-read-all-about-it-verisimilitude…<br />
  23. 23. You can have hyphenated first names: <br />Too-Too Lablanca<br />
  24. 24. Hyphens can show hesitation or stuttering A-A-AH-CHOO!<br />
  25. 25. S-P-E-L-L-I-N-G out of words<br />
  26. 26. Compound numbers from 21 to 39 and fractions<br />Twenty-one<br />Two-thirds<br />
  27. 27. Join numbers with other words<br />Seven-year itch!<br />
  28. 28. Hyphens can be used to spell out ages given<br />Fifty-six-year-old corpse…<br />Wildman will be seventy-five years old tomorrow.<br />
  29. 29. THE END<br />