Reading 090 Using Context Clues and Word Parts
<ul><li>Context -  the setting or situation in which something occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors often give hints or clues...
Do you know the meaning of the word  ubiquitous ?  Look at the sentence below and see if the  context   —   the words surr...
If the phones are  “everywhere,”   they must be   widespread .   The   context   helps you figure out that   ubiquitous   ...
<ul><li>During his lecture, the  ornithologist  described his research on western spotted owls as well as many other birds...
<ul><li>1. definition </li></ul><ul><li>2. synonym </li></ul><ul><li>3. example </li></ul><ul><li>4. contrast </li></ul><u...
• Textbook authors often provide definitions of  important terms, followed by examples.  • They usually set off the terms ...
<ul><li>1. Commas </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochondria ,  excessive worry over one’s health ,   afflicts many Americans over for...
<ul><li>1. There was a  consensus , or unified opinion, among the students that the exam was difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Context clues are often found in the form of  synonyms : one or more words that mean  the same  or  almost the same  as th...
In the sentence below, what is the  synonym  that tells you the meaning of the word  innate ?  That five-year-old girl mus...
In the sentence below, what is the  synonym  that tells you the meaning of the word  innate ?  That five-year-old girl mus...
In the sentences below, what is the  synonym  that tells you the meaning of the word  mentor ?  TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Syn...
In the sentences below, what is the  synonym  that tells you the meaning of the word  mentor ?  TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Syn...
<ul><li>A synonym clue may appear in the same sentence as the unknown word:  </li></ul><ul><li>The author purposely left t...
TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Examples Look at the sentence below and see if the  examples  help you understand the meaning of th...
The  examples  of adversities — scarce food, extreme weather, loneliness — help you understand that  adversities  means  “...
<ul><li>What is the synonym in the sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The mayor’s assistant was accused of  malfeasance , althoug...
<ul><li>Often (but not always) preceded by: </li></ul><ul><li>To illustrate </li></ul><ul><li>For instance </li></ul><ul><...
Look at the sentences below and see if the examples help you understand the meaning of the word  idiosyncrasy .  Each of m...
The three  examples  of unusual personal habits help you understand that  idiosyncrasy  means  “unusual personal habits.” ...
<ul><li>Exercise 2-3 p. 54 </li></ul>
Contrasts/Antonyms  are words or phrases that mean the  opposite  of a word.  Antonyms are also useful as context clues.  ...
<ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>On the one hand </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast </li></ul><ul><l...
Most of my friends’ mothers seemed ordinary; mine, however, did such  bizarre  things as spraying green paint on a dead tr...
Most of my friends’ mothers seemed  ordinary ; mine, however, did such  bizarre  things as spraying green paint on a dead ...
In the sentence below,  1.  What is the  antonym  that helps you figure out the meaning of  the word  verbose ?  2. What i...
In the sentence below,  1.  What is the  antonym  that helps you figure out the meaning of  the word  verbose ?  2. What i...
<ul><li>Exercise 2-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the words from the sentence that tell the opposite of the bold word. </li...
• Sometimes, to figure out an unfamiliar word,  you must  draw conclusions  based on the  information given.  • Asking you...
Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of  rectified .  One argumen...
Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of  rectified .  One argumen...
Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of  extricate .  It took two...
Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of  extricate .  It took two...
<ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The editor would not allow the paper to go to press until certain passages were  expun...
<ul><li>Complete Exercise 2-5 #4-10 p. 58 </li></ul>
 
<ul><li>Word parts  are groups of letters that often have a specific meaning when found in words. </li></ul><ul><li>A fast...
= new word
<ul><li>The parents thought their child was unteachable. </li></ul>
<ul><li>What Are Word Parts, Text p. 59 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Prefixes p. 61 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Root...
<ul><li>Use the charts in the book to help </li></ul><ul><li>The  diameter  of a circle is the distance __________ a circl...
<ul><li>A musical  interlude  is a short piece inserted ___________ the parts of a longer composition. </li></ul><ul><ul><...
<ul><li>The counselor helped the teenager  redefine  her goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explain further </li></ul></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>William was more  introverted  than his sisters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enterta...
<ul><li>The spaceship made a  circumlunar  voyage.  </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own definition. </li></ul><ul><li>circum...
<ul><li>Words can have both a  dictionary definition  as well as an  implied emotional meaning . </li></ul><ul><li>Denotat...
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  • See page 15 in textbook. ANSWER: C The next slide explains the answer.
  • See page 15 in textbook.
  • See page 26 in textbook.
  • See page 19 in textbook.
  • See page 19 in textbook. ANSWER: inborn The next slide explains the answer.
  • See page 19 in textbook.
  • See page 19 in textbook. ANSWER: wise and trusted advisor The next slide explains the answer.
  • See page 19 in textbook.
  • See pages 16 and 17 in textbook. ANSWER: C The next slide explains the answer.
  • See pages 16 and 17 in textbook.
  • See pages 16 and 17 in textbook. ANSWER: B The next slide explains the answer.
  • See pages 16 and 17 in textbook.
  • See pages 20 and 21 in textbook.
  • See pages 20 and 21 in textbook. ANSWER: A The next slide explains the answer.
  • See pages 20 and 21 in textbook.
  • See pages 20 and 21 in textbook. ANSWER: B The next slide explains the answer.
  • See pages 20 and 21 in textbook.
  • See page 23 in textbook.
  • See page 23 in textbook. ANSWER: C The next slide explains the answer.
  • See page 23 in textbook.
  • See page 23 in textbook. ANSWER: A The next slide explains the answer.
  • See page 23 in textbook.
  • Context clue overview

    1. 1. Reading 090 Using Context Clues and Word Parts
    2. 2. <ul><li>Context - the setting or situation in which something occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>Authors often give hints or clues to an unknown word’s meaning within the passage in which the word is found. </li></ul><ul><li>We call these hints “context clues” </li></ul>
    3. 3. Do you know the meaning of the word ubiquitous ? Look at the sentence below and see if the context — the words surrounding the unfamiliar word — helps you figure out the meaning of the word. What does ubiquitous mean? A. unaffordable B. complicated C. widespread Cell phones have become ubiquitous ; you can see — and hear — them everywhere.
    4. 4. If the phones are “everywhere,” they must be widespread . The context helps you figure out that ubiquitous means “widespread.” Cell phones have become ubiquitous ; you can see — and hear — them everywhere . What does ubiquitous mean? A. unaffordable B. complicated C. widespread
    5. 5. <ul><li>During his lecture, the ornithologist described his research on western spotted owls as well as many other birds . </li></ul><ul><li>Ornithologist=a person who studies birds </li></ul>
    6. 6. <ul><li>1. definition </li></ul><ul><li>2. synonym </li></ul><ul><li>3. example </li></ul><ul><li>4. contrast </li></ul><ul><li>5. inference </li></ul><ul><li>6. word parts </li></ul>Authors often use a combination of clues to help a reader understand the meaning of an unknown word . For example, a reader might use both word parts AND inference when determining the meaning of an unknown word.
    7. 7. • Textbook authors often provide definitions of important terms, followed by examples. • They usually set off the terms they are defining in italic or boldface type. TEXTBOOK DEFINITIONS In all societies there is some vertical mobility —moving up or down the status ladder. The upward movement is called upward mobility and the downward movement, downward mobility . The promotion of a teacher to the position of principal is an example of upward mobility, and demotion from principal to teacher is downward mobility. Example
    8. 8. <ul><li>1. Commas </li></ul><ul><li>Hypochondria , excessive worry over one’s health , afflicts many Americans over forty. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Parentheses </li></ul><ul><li>Middle age ( 35 years to 65 years ) is a time for strengthening and maintaining life goals. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Dashes </li></ul><ul><li>Most societies are patriarchal - males exert dominant power and authority . </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>1. There was a consensus , or unified opinion, among the students that the exam was difficult. </li></ul><ul><li>commas </li></ul><ul><li>2. The continents and ocean basins of the Earth’s crust are separated from the Earth’s liquid core by the mantle - 1,800 miles of a sold layer of rock. </li></ul><ul><li>dash </li></ul><ul><li>9. In police investigations, interrogation (examination by questioning) is vital, but it can be psychologically and emotionally draining to the person who is being questioned. </li></ul><ul><li>parentheses </li></ul>
    10. 10. Context clues are often found in the form of synonyms : one or more words that mean the same or almost the same as the unknown word. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Synonym Clue
    11. 11. In the sentence below, what is the synonym that tells you the meaning of the word innate ? That five-year-old girl must have innate musical talent; playing piano so well at her age requires an inborn gift. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Synonyms
    12. 12. In the sentence below, what is the synonym that tells you the meaning of the word innate ? That five-year-old girl must have innate musical talent; playing piano so well at her age requires an inborn gift. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Synonyms The synonym inborn tells you that innate must mean “possessed at birth.” The girl has inborn musical talent. Explanation
    13. 13. In the sentences below, what is the synonym that tells you the meaning of the word mentor ? TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Synonyms Gaining a mentor is helpful when you are beginning a new job. A wise and trusted advisor can greatly assist your career.
    14. 14. In the sentences below, what is the synonym that tells you the meaning of the word mentor ? TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Synonyms The synonym wise and trusted advisor in the second sentence tells you the meaning of mentor . Explanation Gaining a mentor is helpful when you are beginning a new job. A wise and trusted advisor can greatly assist your career.
    15. 15. <ul><li>A synonym clue may appear in the same sentence as the unknown word: </li></ul><ul><li>The author purposely left the ending of his novel ambiguous , or unclear , so readers would have to decide for themselves what happened. </li></ul><ul><li>Or, a synonym clue may appear somewhere else in the passage, in an earlier or later sentence: </li></ul><ul><li>After the soccer match, a melee broke out in the parking lot. Three people were injured in the brawl , and several others were arrested. </li></ul>
    16. 16. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Examples Look at the sentence below and see if the examples help you understand the meaning of the word adversities . As they moved westward, early pioneers faced many adversities , such as scarce food, extreme weather, and loneliness. Adversities means A. criminals. B. decisions. C. hardships.
    17. 17. The examples of adversities — scarce food, extreme weather, loneliness — help you understand that adversities means “hardships.” Explanation TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Examples As they moved westward, early pioneers faced many adversities , such as scarce food , extreme weather , and loneliness . Adversities means A. criminals. B. decisions. C. hardships.
    18. 18. <ul><li>What is the synonym in the sentence? </li></ul><ul><li>The mayor’s assistant was accused of malfeasance , although he denied any wrongdoing. </li></ul><ul><li>Edgar Allan Poe is best known for his macabre short stories and poems. His eerie tale, the Fall of the House of Usher , was made into a horror movie starring Vincent Price. </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Often (but not always) preceded by: </li></ul><ul><li>To illustrate </li></ul><ul><li>For instance </li></ul><ul><li>For example </li></ul><ul><li>Such as </li></ul><ul><li>Including </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Microscopic pathogens , such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi, constantly threaten our health as we go about our daily lives. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Look at the sentences below and see if the examples help you understand the meaning of the word idiosyncrasy . Each of my coworkers has a strange idiosyncrasy . For instance, our receptionist wears only pink. The mail clerk always speaks in a whisper. And my office mate lives on peanuts and apples. Idiosyncrasy means A. hidden thought. B. unusual personal habits. C. unusual goal. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Examples
    21. 21. The three examples of unusual personal habits help you understand that idiosyncrasy means “unusual personal habits.” Explanation TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Examples Each of my coworkers has a strange idiosyncrasy . For instance, our receptionist wears only pink . The mail clerk always speaks in a whisper . And my office mate lives on peanuts and apples. Idiosyncrasy means A. hidden thought. B. unusual personal habits. C. unusual goal.
    22. 22. <ul><li>Exercise 2-3 p. 54 </li></ul>
    23. 23. Contrasts/Antonyms are words or phrases that mean the opposite of a word. Antonyms are also useful as context clues. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Contrast/Antonyms
    24. 24. <ul><li>Whereas </li></ul><ul><li>On the one hand </li></ul><ul><li>However </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike </li></ul><ul><li>But </li></ul><ul><li>Despite </li></ul><ul><li>Yet </li></ul><ul><li>Rather </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless </li></ul>
    25. 25. Most of my friends’ mothers seemed ordinary; mine, however, did such bizarre things as spraying green paint on a dead tree in front of our house. Bizarre means A. odd. B. easy. C. dangerous. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Contrast/Antonyms In the sentence below, 1. What is the antonym that helps you figure out the meaning of the word bizarre ? 2. What is the meaning of bizarre ?
    26. 26. Most of my friends’ mothers seemed ordinary ; mine, however, did such bizarre things as spraying green paint on a dead tree in front of our house. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Contrast/Antonyms In the sentence below, 1. What is the antonym that helps you figure out the meaning of the word bizarre ? 2. What is the meaning of bizarre ? Bizarre is the opposite of “ordinary,” so it must mean “odd.” Explanation Bizarre means B. easy. C. dangerous. A. odd.
    27. 27. In the sentence below, 1. What is the antonym that helps you figure out the meaning of the word verbose ? 2. What is the meaning of verbose ? Verbose means A. argumentative. B. wordy. C. short. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Contrast/Antonyms A memo that is brief and to the point is more likely to be read than one that is verbose and rambling.
    28. 28. In the sentence below, 1. What is the antonym that helps you figure out the meaning of the word verbose ? 2. What is the meaning of verbose ? A memo that is brief and to the point is more likely to be read than one that is verbose and rambling. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Contrast/Antonyms Verbose is the opposite of “brief and to the point,” so it must mean “wordy.” Explanation Verbose means A. argumentative. B. wordy. C. short.
    29. 29. <ul><li>Exercise 2-4 </li></ul><ul><li>Highlight the words from the sentence that tell the opposite of the bold word. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the best answer from the choices provided for the meaning of the bold word. </li></ul>
    30. 30. • Sometimes, to figure out an unfamiliar word, you must draw conclusions based on the information given. • Asking yourself questions can help you make an accurate guess about the meaning of the unfamiliar word. TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Inference
    31. 31. Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of rectified . One argument against capital punishment is that if an innocent person is executed, the mistake cannot be rectified . Rectified means A. remembered. B. predicted. C. corrected. (What cannot be done about a mistake as final as an execution?) TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Inference
    32. 32. Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of rectified . One argument against capital punishment is that if an innocent person is executed, the mistake cannot be rectified . Rectified means A. remembered. B. predicted. C. corrected. (What cannot be done about a mistake as final as an execution?) TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Inference Because the innocent person is dead, there is no way to correct the mistake of having executed the person. Explanation
    33. 33. Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of extricate . It took two days for volunteers to extricate the little girl from the bottom of the well. Extricate means A. free. B. delay. C. remember. (How would volunteers try to help the trapped girl?) TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Inference
    34. 34. Read the sentence below. Then think about the question that follows to figure out the meaning of extricate . It took two days for volunteers to extricate the little girl from the bottom of the well. Extricate means A. free. B. delay. C. remember. (How would volunteers try to help the trapped girl?) TYPES OF CONTEXT CLUES Inference If the girl is at the bottom of a well, the volunteers would try to free her. Explanation
    35. 35. <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><li>The editor would not allow the paper to go to press until certain passages were expunged from an article naming individuals in a political scandal. </li></ul><ul><li>Removed </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: The editor would want the incriminating material removed before printing to avoid trouble. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the hammering next door had been going on for days, we had become somewhat inured to it. </li></ul><ul><li>Accustomed/used to </li></ul><ul><li>Explanation: People get used to a sound that they hear continuously. </li></ul>
    36. 36. <ul><li>Complete Exercise 2-5 #4-10 p. 58 </li></ul>
    37. 38. <ul><li>Word parts are groups of letters that often have a specific meaning when found in words. </li></ul><ul><li>A fast way to start understanding unknown words is to recognize common word parts. </li></ul><ul><li>For example… non- means “not” and is found in over 10,000 words. Also, pseudo- means “false” and is found in over 400 words. </li></ul>
    38. 39. = new word
    39. 40. <ul><li>The parents thought their child was unteachable. </li></ul>
    40. 41. <ul><li>What Are Word Parts, Text p. 59 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Prefixes p. 61 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Roots p. 64 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Common Suffixes p. 67 </li></ul></ul>
    41. 42. <ul><li>Use the charts in the book to help </li></ul><ul><li>The diameter of a circle is the distance __________ a circle. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Around </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Under </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through </li></ul></ul>
    42. 43. <ul><li>A musical interlude is a short piece inserted ___________ the parts of a longer composition. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>During </li></ul></ul>
    43. 44. <ul><li>The counselor helped the teenager redefine her goals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explain further </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>state again </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>defend </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>closely manage </li></ul></ul>
    44. 45. <ul><li>William was more introverted than his sisters. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Entertaining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul></ul>
    45. 46. <ul><li>The spaceship made a circumlunar voyage. </li></ul><ul><li>Create your own definition. </li></ul><ul><li>circum- = around </li></ul><ul><li>lunar = moon (need background knowledge) </li></ul><ul><li>circumlunar = around the moon </li></ul>
    46. 47. <ul><li>Words can have both a dictionary definition as well as an implied emotional meaning . </li></ul><ul><li>Denotation- meaning stated in a dictionary, literal definition of a word </li></ul><ul><li>Connotation- additional implied meaning a word may take on; usually a positive or negative impression </li></ul>

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