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Markel8e ch19

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Markel8e ch19

  1. 1. Understanding the Writing Process for Instructions and Manuals <ul><ul><li>Analyze your audience and purpose. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gather and organize your information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design the document. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Draft the document. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revise, edit, and proofread the document. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conduct usability tests of the document. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  2. 2. Questions to Consider in Designing a Set of Instructions <ul><li>What are your reader’s expectations? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you need to create more than one set of instructions for different audiences? </li></ul><ul><li>What languages should you use? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the environment in which the instructions are read affect the document design? </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  3. 3. Questions to Consider in Designing the Pages <ul><li>Should you make your pages multilingual? </li></ul><ul><li>Will readers be anxious about the information? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the environment in which the instructions are read affect the page design or typography? </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  4. 4. Guidelines for Designing Clear, Attractive Pages <ul><li>Create an open, airy design. </li></ul><ul><li>Clearly relate the graphics to the text. </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  5. 5. Steps in Planning for Safety <ul><li>Write effective safety information. </li></ul><ul><li>Design effective safety information. </li></ul><ul><li>Place safety information in the appropriate location. </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  6. 6. Signal Words in Safety Labels <ul><ul><li>Danger: an immediate and serious hazard that will likely be fatal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warning: potential for serious injury or death or serious damage to equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caution: potential for anything from moderate injury to serious equipment damage or destruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note: a tip or suggestion to help readers carry out the procedure successfully </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  7. 7. Elements of a Set of Instructions <ul><ul><li>title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>general introduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>step-by-step instructions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conclusion </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  8. 8. Forms of Titles for Instructions <ul><li>Effective titles: </li></ul><ul><li>How-to. “How to Install the J112 Shock Absorbers” </li></ul><ul><li>Gerund. “Installing the J112 Shock Absorber” </li></ul><ul><li>Ineffective titles: Noun strings . </li></ul><ul><li>“ J112 Shock Absorber Installation Instructions” </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  9. 9. Questions to Consider in Drafting Introductions for Instructions <ul><ul><li>Who should carry out the task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why should the reader carry out this task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When should the reader carry out this task? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What safety measures or other concerns should the reader understand? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What items will the reader need? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How long will the task take? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  10. 10. Guidelines for Drafting Steps in Instructions <ul><ul><li>Number the instructions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Present the right amount of information in each step. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use the imperative mood. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Don’t confuse steps and feedback statements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include graphics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not omit the articles ( a , an , the ) to save space. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  11. 11. Questions to Answer in Drafting the Front Matter of a Manual <ul><ul><li>Who should use this manual? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What product, procedure, or system does the manual describe? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the manual’s purpose? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are the manual’s major components? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How should the manual be used? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  12. 12. Guidelines for Drafting the Body of a Manual <ul><ul><li>Structure the body according to how the reader will use it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write clearly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be informal, if appropriate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use graphics. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  13. 13. Two Approaches to Revising a Manual <ul><ul><li>Publish a &quot;new&quot; manual. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publish a &quot;revised&quot; manual. </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  14. 14. Questions to Consider in Planning Manuals for Multicultural Readers <ul><ul><li>In what language should the information be written? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do the text or graphics need to be modified? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the reader’s technological infrastructure? </li></ul></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  15. 15. Basic Principles of Usability Testing <ul><li>It permeates product development. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves studying real users as they use the product. </li></ul><ul><li>It involves setting measurable goals and determining whether the product meets them. </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  16. 16. Planning a Usability Test <ul><li>Understand your users’ needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine the purpose of the test. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff the test team. </li></ul><ul><li>Set up the test environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a test plan. </li></ul><ul><li>Select participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare the test materials. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a pilot test. </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  17. 17. Important Aspects of Conducting the Usability Test <ul><li>staying organized </li></ul><ul><li>interacting with the participant </li></ul><ul><li>debriefing the participant </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's
  18. 18. Interpreting and Reporting the Data <ul><li>Tabulate the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Analyze the information. </li></ul><ul><li>Report the information. </li></ul>Chapter 19. Writing Instructions and Manuals © 2007 by Bedford/St. Martin's

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