Sentence Fluency

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Adapted lesson on sentence variety in paragraphs with emphasis on gerunds, infinitives, prepositional phrases, transitions, and complex sentences. A review of vivid verbs and nifty nouns for revision is also included. Adapted from original lesson at: http://www.ofcn.org/cyber.serv/academy/ace/lang/ceclang/ceclang001.html

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Sentence Fluency

  1. 1. Sentence Fluency With a review of paragraph structure and vivid verbs
  2. 2. Sentence Fluency Your writing flows from idea to idea with different lengths and beginnings of sentences.
  3. 3. Sentence Fluency <ul><li>Sentence Variety section from: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www. ofcn .org/cyber. serv /academy/ace/ lang / ceclang /ceclang001.html </li></ul><ul><li>AUTHOR: Martha Adams; Jefferson Elementary, Everette, WA </li></ul><ul><li>Adapted from Mitzi Merrill; Staff Development </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist, </li></ul><ul><li>Snohomish, WA </li></ul>
  4. 4. Goal <ul><li>Write a paragraph with topic sentence, main idea and detail sentences, concluding sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Write with sentence variety using gerunds, infinitives, prepositional phrases </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A. Gerund (-ing) Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B. Infinitive ( to + verb) Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>C. Prepositional Phrase Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(See page 55 in yellow Ginn English book) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D. Complex sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use transitions that lead reader to the next idea </li></ul><ul><li>Revise paragraphs for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Details for each main idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nifty Nouns </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Beginning Writer: Advanced Writer: <ul><li>Short, choppy sentences </li></ul><ul><li>All start with The, An, A, or I </li></ul><ul><li>Run-on sentences </li></ul><ul><li>Dead Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Few details </li></ul><ul><li>No or predictable transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Long, Short sentences </li></ul><ul><li>All start differently </li></ul><ul><li>Complete sentences-simple, compound, and complex </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, Vivid Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Many details </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated transitions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Tricks for Better Writing You, too, can write well. Let’s start…
  7. 7. List three for each: <ul><li>Things you wish for </li></ul><ul><li>Places you wish to visit </li></ul><ul><li>Happenings you’d like to see </li></ul><ul><li>Example, next slide </li></ul><ul><li>Organizer Handout available </li></ul>
  8. 8. List three: Circle one favorite item from each list. Italy More recycling Lottery Jamaica Energy consciousness Diamonds Australia Peace on Earth Ferrari Places Happenings Things
  9. 9. List three: Circle one favorite item from each list. Places Happenings Things
  10. 10. Topic Sentence <ul><li>Write a topic sentence that lists your three wishes. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples, next slide </li></ul>
  11. 11. Topic Sentence <ul><li>Samples: </li></ul><ul><li>Three things that would make me happy include a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>If I had three wishes they would include a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>A Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia would make me happy. </li></ul><ul><li>Three sure ways to make me happy would include a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Second Sentence <ul><li>Begin with an -ing word and the thing wished for </li></ul><ul><li>Samples: </li></ul><ul><li>Racing down the freeway in my Ferrari, I would discover envy in the eyes of everyone I met. </li></ul><ul><li>Owning a red Ferrari would probably net me many speeding tickets. </li></ul><ul><li>Driving my zippy Ferrari would cause me to smile from ear to ear. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Third Sentence <ul><li>Begin with “To” plus an action word and the happening wished for </li></ul><ul><li>Samples: </li></ul><ul><li>To live in an energy conscious society would allow us to live healthier. </li></ul><ul><li>To know that everyone would attempt energy consciousness would provide relief to me. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand energy conservation, I would share its importance with others. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fourth Sentence <ul><li>Begin with a prepositional phrase and the place wished for </li></ul><ul><li>Samples: </li></ul><ul><li>During a visit to Australia, </li></ul><ul><li>I would certainly see kangaroos. </li></ul><ul><li>For visiting Australia , I would plan my tour of the most interesting places. </li></ul><ul><li>From a visit to Australia , I would learn about many different animals and plants. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fifth Sentence <ul><li>A concluding sentence beginning with a transition word: </li></ul><ul><li>Finally, </li></ul><ul><li>Certainly, </li></ul><ul><li>Surely, </li></ul><ul><li>Hopefully, </li></ul><ul><li>Samples: </li></ul><ul><li>Certainly , my wishes are attainable. </li></ul><ul><li>Surely , I deserve all I wish for. </li></ul><ul><li>Hopefully , my wishes will come true before I'm 50. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Write your sentences In paragraph form, such as these:
  17. 17. Three things that would make me happy are a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. Racing down the freeway in my Ferrari, I would discover envy in the eyes of everyone I met. To live in an energy conscious society would allow us to live healthier. From a visit to Australia, I would learn about many different animals and plants. Certainly, my wishes are attainable.
  18. 18. If I had three wishes they would include a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. Driving my zippy Ferrari would cause me to smile from ear to ear. To live in an energy conscious society would allow us to live healthier. During a visit to Australia, I would certainly see kangaroos. Surely, I deserve all I wish for.
  19. 19. Revise your paragraph, Adding a detail sentence for each idea, such as: Adding/substituting vivid verbs and nifty nouns
  20. 20. Review <ul><li>Vivid Verbs </li></ul><ul><li>Show action: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Laugh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enjoy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sprint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dash </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nifty Nouns </li></ul><ul><li>Add specific detail (specific noun or with adjectives): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cat --> calico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man--> elder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place --> Seattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kangaroo --> kooky kangaroo </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Three things that would make me happy are a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. Racing down the freeway in my Ferrari, I would discover envy in the eyes of everyone I met. It might also net me many speeding tickets . To live in an energy conscious society would allow us to live healthier. I would enjoy breathing fresh, clean air each day, unpolluted by oil, gas, or nuclear reactions . From a visit to Australia, I would learn about many different animals and plants. I know I would see kooky kangaroos hopping along the road like giant rabbits . Certainly, my wishes are attainable.
  22. 22. If I had three wishes they would include a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. Driving my zippy Ferrari would cause me to smile from ear to ear. The wind would slap my hair against my face, and the sun would shine down on me as I sped across the Australian outback . During my visit to Australia, I would certainly see kangaroos. I would carefully dodge them as I dashed by. To live in an energy conscious society would allow us to live healthier. We would protect the environment and ourselves, saving the world for our own children. Surely, I deserve all I wish for.
  23. 23. Advanced: Complex Sentences <ul><li>Begin your sentence with a dependent clause (Write Source 2000, page 96; Blue Write Source, page 444) </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Because my Ferrari flies so fast , I would probably receive many speeding tickets. </li></ul><ul><li>Practice: http://esl.about.com/od/intermediatewriting/a/cplex_sentence.htm </li></ul>
  24. 24. If I had three wishes they would include a Ferrari, an energy conscious society, and a trip to Australia. Driving my zippy Ferrari would cause me to smile from ear to ear. The wind would slap my hair against my face, and the sun would shine down on me as I sped across the Australian outback. Because my Ferrari flies so fast , I would probably receive many speeding tickets. During my visit to Australia, I would certainly see kangaroos. I would carefully dodge them as I dashed by. To live in an energy conscious society would allow us to live healthier. We would protect the environment and ourselves, saving the world for our own children. Surely, I deserve all I wish for.
  25. 25. Sentence Fluency/Variety <ul><li>Choose one main idea in your paragraph (I choose the Ferrari idea) </li></ul><ul><li>Add a complex sentence -- a sentence that begins with a dependent clause </li></ul>
  26. 26. Share your powerful paragraph written with sentence variety, details, transitions, nifty nouns, and vivid verbs…
  27. 27. Did you? <ul><li>__ Write a paragraph with topic sentence, main idea and detail sentences, concluding sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Write with sentence variety using gerunds, infinitives, prepositional phrases, dependent clauses </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__ a. Gerund (-ing) Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>__ b. Infinitive ( to + verb) Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ c. Prepositional Phrase Sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(See page 55 in yellow Ginn English book) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>___ d. Complex sentence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>___ Use transitions that lead reader to the next idea </li></ul><ul><li>___ Revise paragraphs for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Details for each main idea </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong Verbs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nifty Nouns </li></ul></ul>
  28. 29. Sentence Fluency Review <ul><li>Begin sentence with -ing word (gerund) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin sentence with “To” plus an action verb (infinitive) </li></ul><ul><li>Begin your sentence with a prepositional phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with a transition. </li></ul><ul><li>Begin with a dependent clause </li></ul><ul><li>Driving my zippy Ferrari would cause me to smile from ear to ear. </li></ul><ul><li>To travel through traffic in my Ferrari, I would slow down. </li></ul><ul><li>During my visit to Australia, I would carefully dodge kangaroos as I dashed by. </li></ul><ul><li>Surely, I deserve all I wish for. </li></ul><ul><li>Because my Ferrari flies so fast, I would probably receive many speeding tickets. </li></ul>Can you identify each strategy?
  29. 30. Use your new power. <ul><li>Write with sentence fluency: </li></ul><ul><li>Your writing flows from idea to idea with different lengths and beginnings of sentences. </li></ul>

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