Chapter 18 Cell Division Lesson 2 - Introduction to the Cell Cycle and Mitosis

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Chapter 18 Cell Division Lesson 2 - Introduction to the Cell Cycle and Mitosis

  1. 1. Mitosis - What is mitosis? - Stages of mitosis
  2. 3. What is Mitosis? <ul><li>In mitosis a cell nucleus divides into two identical ‘daughter’ nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Each daughter nucleus has the same number of chromosomes as the parent nucleus </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. skin cells divide regularly to replace dead cells that have been shed from the surface of your skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skin cells (parent cells) contain 46 chromosomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After mitosis, each daughter cell will also contain 46 chromosomes </li></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Overview of mitosis
  4. 5. Humans have 46 chromosomes (23 pairs of chromosomes) sex chromosomes Consisting of 22 pairs of autosomes + 1 pair sex chromosomes
  5. 6. Chromosomes <ul><li>Made up of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>DNA stores all the information that a cell needs to grow and carry out vital activities </li></ul><ul><li>This information is stored as sections of DNA ( genes ) </li></ul><ul><li>Daughter cells produced by mitosis are genetically identical to the parent cell </li></ul>
  6. 7. The relationship between DNA and chromosomes
  7. 8. Homologous chromosomes <ul><li>Homologous chromosomes mean that diploid cells have two copies of each gene, with one copy coming from mom and one copy coming from dad! </li></ul><ul><li>- However, the sequences of the two genes do not have to be identical </li></ul>
  8. 10. The Cell Cycle <ul><li>is the sequence of stages that a cell passes through between one division and the next </li></ul><ul><li>The cell cycle oscillates between </li></ul><ul><li>i) Interphase , which is divided into the G1 phase (involving a high rate of biosynthesis and growth), the S phase (in which the DNA content is doubled as a consequence of chromosome replication), and the G2 phase (preparatory for cell division) </li></ul><ul><li>ii) Mitosis (nuclear division) </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Cytokinesis (division of cytoplasm) </li></ul>
  9. 11. The Cell Cycle
  10. 12. Cell Cycle
  11. 13. To Remember the Cell Cycle…(IMC) <ul><li>I nterphase (G1, S, G2 phases) </li></ul><ul><li>M itosis </li></ul><ul><li>C ytokinesis </li></ul>P rophase M etaphase A naphase T elophase

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