Cell Reproduction Notes
Prokaryotic Cell Reproduction <ul><li>Prokaryotes reproduce by  _binary fission. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced identical offs...
 
Eukaryotic Chromosomes What are chromosomes made of?  ___DNA______________ What is a gene? _SEGMENT OF DNA______ ___________
Which organism has the most chromosomes?__________least?___________
Human Chromosomes (karyotype) Is this a karyotype of a male or female? What is the difference between male and female?
Sets of Chromosomes <ul><li>Humans have 23 sets of two chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>One of each pair came from each paren...
Chromosomal Mutations What do the different sections represent? What went wrong in each mutation? sickle-cell disease  is ...
Chromesome number sheet Organism # of chromosomes in body, skin cells, etc. 2N Diploid # 1N Haploid # # of chromosomes in ...
Chromesome number sheet Organism # of chromosomes in body, skin cells, etc. 2N Diploid # 1N Haploid # # of chromosomes in ...
Cell Cycle <ul><li>First Growth Phase (G1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell grows rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal cell...
Phases of Mitosis
Chromosome during Mitosis
Phases of Mitosis
Phases of Mitosis
 
 
Meiosis – Cell reproduction of sex cells.
Meiosis Mitosis Start with 2N cells, end with 1N cells (haploid.) Start with (diploid) 2N cells, End with 2N cells # of ch...
Meiosis 1
Meiosis 2
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Teacher mitosis

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Teacher mitosis

  1. 1. Cell Reproduction Notes
  2. 2. Prokaryotic Cell Reproduction <ul><li>Prokaryotes reproduce by _binary fission. </li></ul><ul><li>Produced identical offspring </li></ul><ul><li>First the DNA is copied </li></ul><ul><li>New cell membrane is added to pinch the cell into two daughter cells . </li></ul>
  3. 4. Eukaryotic Chromosomes What are chromosomes made of? ___DNA______________ What is a gene? _SEGMENT OF DNA______ ___________
  4. 5. Which organism has the most chromosomes?__________least?___________
  5. 6. Human Chromosomes (karyotype) Is this a karyotype of a male or female? What is the difference between male and female?
  6. 7. Sets of Chromosomes <ul><li>Humans have 23 sets of two chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>One of each pair came from each parent. </li></ul><ul><li>_ SOMATIC _ cells (body cells) all contain 46 chromosomes </li></ul><ul><li>__ sex __ chromosomes (sperm and egg) are haploid, they contain 23 chromosomes each. </li></ul><ul><li>When sex chromosomes combine they form a diploid _ ZYGOTE . </li></ul>
  7. 8. Chromosomal Mutations What do the different sections represent? What went wrong in each mutation? sickle-cell disease is caused by a single point mutation which encodes the amino acid valine rather than glutamic acid .
  8. 9. Chromesome number sheet Organism # of chromosomes in body, skin cells, etc. 2N Diploid # 1N Haploid # # of chromosomes in sperm cells # of chromosomes in egg cells Fruit fly 8 Onion 8 Cat 38 Chicken 38 human apple 34 Cat fish 20
  9. 10. Chromesome number sheet Organism # of chromosomes in body, skin cells, etc. 2N Diploid # 1N Haploid # # of chromosomes in sperm cells # of chromosomes in egg cells Fruit fly 8 8 4 4 4 Onion 16 16 8 8 8 Cat 38 38 19 19 19 Chicken 76 76 38 38 38 human 46 46 23 23 23 apple 34 34 17 17 17 Cat fish 20 20 10 10 10
  10. 11. Cell Cycle <ul><li>First Growth Phase (G1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell grows rapidly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Normal cell functioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Major portion of life </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Synthesis Phase (S) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA is copied </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each chromosome = 2 chromatids attached at centromere </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Growth Phase (G2) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organelles replicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Microtubules form spindle to move chromosomes during mitosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mitosis </li></ul><ul><li>cell nucleus divides </li></ul><ul><li>Cytokinesis </li></ul><ul><li>cytoplasm divides </li></ul>
  11. 12. Phases of Mitosis
  12. 13. Chromosome during Mitosis
  13. 14. Phases of Mitosis
  14. 15. Phases of Mitosis
  15. 18. Meiosis – Cell reproduction of sex cells.
  16. 19. Meiosis Mitosis Start with 2N cells, end with 1N cells (haploid.) Start with (diploid) 2N cells, End with 2N cells # of chromosomes in cells produced is reduced by half. Chromosome # stays the same. Creates 4 egg or sperm cells Creates 2 identical daughter cells <ul><li>2 Cell divisions involving </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>telophase </li></ul><ul><li>1 cell division involving </li></ul><ul><li>Interphase </li></ul><ul><li>Prophase </li></ul><ul><li>Metaphase </li></ul><ul><li>Anaphase </li></ul><ul><li>telophase </li></ul>
  17. 20. Meiosis 1
  18. 21. Meiosis 2

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