TMJ disorders / fellowships in orthodontics

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TMJ disorders / fellowships in orthodontics

  1. 1. TMJ DisordersTMJ Disorders INDIAN DENTAL ACADEMY Leader in continuing dental education www.indiandentalacademy.com www.indiandentalacademy.com
  2. 2. ContentsContents  IntroductionIntroduction  EpidemiologyEpidemiology  EtiologyEtiology  ClassificationClassification  Clinical featuresClinical features  Radiological featuresRadiological features  Histopathologic featuresHistopathologic features  TreatmentTreatment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  3. 3. IntroductionIntroduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  4. 4. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  5. 5. EpidemiologyEpidemiology  Epidemiologic studiesEpidemiologic studies  60-70%60-70%  20-40 years.20-40 years. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  6. 6. EtiologyEtiology  Multifactorial:Multifactorial:  Parafunctional habitsParafunctional habits  StressStress  TraumaTrauma www.indiandentalacademy.com
  7. 7.  Abnormal maxillo-mandibular relationships.Abnormal maxillo-mandibular relationships.  Rheumatic / musculo-skeletal disorders.Rheumatic / musculo-skeletal disorders.  Poor general health and unhealthy lifestyle.Poor general health and unhealthy lifestyle. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  8. 8. AnatomyAnatomy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  9. 9. Normal histology of TMJNormal histology of TMJ www.indiandentalacademy.com
  10. 10. ClassificationClassification(Etiology)(Etiology) I.I. DevelopmentalDevelopmental  AplasiaAplasia  HypoplasiaHypoplasia  HyperplasiaHyperplasia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  11. 11. II.II. TraumaticTraumatic  AnkylosisAnkylosis  Injuries of the articular diskInjuries of the articular disk www.indiandentalacademy.com
  12. 12. III. Fractures of the condyleIII. Fractures of the condyle IV.IV. InflammatoryInflammatory  ArthritisArthritis  Rheumotoid arthritisRheumotoid arthritis  OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  13. 13. V.V. NeoplasticNeoplastic VI.VI. Extra-articular disturbancesExtra-articular disturbances VII. Temporomandibular jointVII. Temporomandibular joint syndrome (TMD)syndrome (TMD)  TMD secondary to myofacial pain and dysfunctionTMD secondary to myofacial pain and dysfunction (MPD)(MPD)  TMD secondary to true articular disease.TMD secondary to true articular disease. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  14. 14. DEVELOPMENTALDEVELOPMENTAL DISTURBANCESDISTURBANCES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  15. 15. Aplasia of the mandibular condyleAplasia of the mandibular condyle  Unilateral / bilateral.Unilateral / bilateral.  RareRare C/FC/F  Associated-- absent externalAssociated-- absent external earear ,under,under developed ramus / macrostomia.developed ramus / macrostomia.  Facial asymmetryFacial asymmetry www.indiandentalacademy.com
  16. 16.  TreatmentTreatment  OsteoplastyOsteoplasty  Orthodontic appliancesOrthodontic appliances  Cosmetic surgeryCosmetic surgery www.indiandentalacademy.com
  17. 17. Hypoplasia of the mandibular condyleHypoplasia of the mandibular condyle::  Under development / defective formationUnder development / defective formation  Congenital hypoplasiaCongenital hypoplasia  IdiopathicIdiopathic  Characterized by uni / bilateral underCharacterized by uni / bilateral under development of the condyledevelopment of the condyle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  18. 18. Acquired hypoplasiaAcquired hypoplasia Forceps deliveriesForceps deliveries External traumaExternal trauma X-ray radiationX-ray radiation InfectionInfection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  19. 19.  C/f:C/f:  DependsDepends  Degree of malformation.Degree of malformation.  AgeAge DDurationuration  UnilateralUnilateral www.indiandentalacademy.com
  20. 20.  Limited lateral movementsLimited lateral movements  Midline shiftMidline shift  Lack of downward and forward growth of theLack of downward and forward growth of the mandiblemandible  Arrest of theArrest of the chief growth centerchief growth center of theof the mandible i.e.,mandible i.e., condyle.condyle. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  21. 21.  Treatment & prognosis:Treatment & prognosis:  Cartilage / bone transplantsCartilage / bone transplants  Unilateral and bilateral osteotomyUnilateral and bilateral osteotomy www.indiandentalacademy.com
  22. 22. Hyperplasia of the mandibular condyleHyperplasia of the mandibular condyle::  RareRare  unilateral enlargement of the condyleunilateral enlargement of the condyle  Causes:Causes: -Obscure-Obscure -Mild chronic inflammation.-Mild chronic inflammation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  23. 23.  C/f:C/f:  Elongation of the faceElongation of the face  deviation of the chin away from the affected side.deviation of the chin away from the affected side.  Enlarged condyleEnlarged condyle  may or may not be painfulmay or may not be painful  severe malocclusionsevere malocclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  24. 24. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  25. 25. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  26. 26.  R/F:R/F:  Elongated neck and enlarged condylar headElongated neck and enlarged condylar head  Treatment and prognosis:Treatment and prognosis:  CondylectomyCondylectomy  Orthognathic surgeryOrthognathic surgery  Resection of condyleResection of condyle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  27. 27. Condylar hyperplasia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  28. 28. Bifid condyleBifid condyle  Double headed.Double headed.  Medial & lateral head.Medial & lateral head. //Anterior & posterior head.Anterior & posterior head. Etiology:Etiology:  Uncertain.Uncertain.  Traumatic in origin.Traumatic in origin.  Abnormal muscle attachmentAbnormal muscle attachment www.indiandentalacademy.com
  29. 29. C/F:C/F:  UnilateralUnilateral  AsymptomaticAsymptomatic  Pop or click of TMJPop or click of TMJ R/F:R/F:  Bilobed appearanceBilobed appearance  AsymptomaticAsymptomatic  no treatmentno treatment necessary.necessary. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  30. 30. Histologic section of bifid condyleHistologic section of bifid condyle www.indiandentalacademy.com
  31. 31. TraumaticTraumatic www.indiandentalacademy.com
  32. 32. Luxation and subluxationLuxation and subluxation Dislocation of the TMJDislocation of the TMJ  Luxation of the jointLuxation of the joint  SubluxationSubluxation  LuxationLuxation  ‘acute’, due to a sudden traumatic injury‘acute’, due to a sudden traumatic injury resulting in the fracture of the condyle.resulting in the fracture of the condyle.  Yawning / wide opening of mouthYawning / wide opening of mouth www.indiandentalacademy.com
  33. 33. Unilateral condylar dislocation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  34. 34. Bilateral condylar dislocation www.indiandentalacademy.com
  35. 35. Luxation & SubluxationLuxation & Subluxation  C/f:C/f:  Sudden locking and immobilization of the jaws.Sudden locking and immobilization of the jaws.  Prolonged spasmodic contraction of the temporal,Prolonged spasmodic contraction of the temporal, internal pterygoid and masseter muscles.internal pterygoid and masseter muscles. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  36. 36. Luxation & SubluxationLuxation & Subluxation  Treatment:Treatment:  Relaxation of the muscles and then guiding the head of theRelaxation of the muscles and then guiding the head of the condyle under the articular eminence into its normal positioncondyle under the articular eminence into its normal position by an inferior and posterior pressure of the thumbs in theby an inferior and posterior pressure of the thumbs in the mandibular molar area.mandibular molar area. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  37. 37. AnkylosisAnkylosis  Fusion of head of the condyleFusion of head of the condyle  temporal bone.temporal bone.  EtiologyEtiology::  IdiopathicIdiopathic  Traumatic injuriesTraumatic injuries  InfectionInfection  Rheumatoid arthritisRheumatoid arthritis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  38. 38. AnkylosisAnkylosis  C/f:C/f:  11stst decadedecade  Before 10 yearsBefore 10 years  M = FM = F  Unilateral /BilateralUnilateral /Bilateral  In ability to open the jawsIn ability to open the jaws  Pain, tenderness and malocclusionPain, tenderness and malocclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  39. 39. Unilateral ankylosis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  40. 40. AnkylosisAnkylosis Intra-articular ankylosisIntra-articular ankylosis Extra-articular ankylosisExtra-articular ankylosis -Destruction of the meniscus-Destruction of the meniscus -Flattening of the mandibular-Flattening of the mandibular fossa thickening of the headfossa thickening of the head of the condyleof the condyle -narrowing of the joint space-narrowing of the joint space -Fibrous adhesion-Fibrous adhesion External fibrous / osseousExternal fibrous / osseous encapsulation.encapsulation. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  41. 41. AnkylosisAnkylosis  R/F:R/F:  Abnormal / irregular shape of the head of theAbnormal / irregular shape of the head of the condylecondyle  Treatment:Treatment:  Surgical osteotomy / removal of section of boneSurgical osteotomy / removal of section of bone below the condyle.below the condyle.  Fibrous ankylosis can be treated by functionalFibrous ankylosis can be treated by functional methods.methods. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  42. 42. Injuries of the articular diskInjuries of the articular disk  MalocclusionMalocclusion  Loss of adaptation of the disk to the condyle.Loss of adaptation of the disk to the condyle.  Precipitating factorsPrecipitating factors  Blow / fallBlow / fall  Rheumatoid arthritisRheumatoid arthritis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  43. 43.  C/f:C/f:  FemalesFemales  Young adultsYoung adults  frequently affected.frequently affected.  Pain, snapping or clicking and crepitation.Pain, snapping or clicking and crepitation.  Transient / prolonged locking of the jaw mayTransient / prolonged locking of the jaw may occur.occur. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  44. 44. Injuries of the articular diskInjuries of the articular disk Normal disc positionNormal disc position Anterior discAnterior disc displacementdisplacement www.indiandentalacademy.com
  45. 45. Injuries of the articular diskInjuries of the articular disk www.indiandentalacademy.com
  46. 46. Injuries of the articular diskInjuries of the articular disk  R/F:R/F:  No +ve findingsNo +ve findings  Treatment:Treatment:  ImmobilizationImmobilization  Menisectomy / surgical removal of theMenisectomy / surgical removal of the disk.disk. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  47. 47. FracturesFractures www.indiandentalacademy.com
  48. 48. Condylar fracture:Condylar fracture:  Traumatic injuryTraumatic injury  Limitation of motionLimitation of motion  Pain and swellingPain and swelling  Displaced anteriorly and medially into theDisplaced anteriorly and medially into the infratemporal regioninfratemporal region Surgical reduction www.indiandentalacademy.com
  49. 49. Unilateral Bilateralwww.indiandentalacademy.com
  50. 50. INFLAMMATORYINFLAMMATORY DISTURBANCESDISTURBANCES www.indiandentalacademy.com
  51. 51. Arthritis.Arthritis. 3 types :3 types : 1.1. Arthritis due to a specific infection.Arthritis due to a specific infection. 2.2. Rheumatoid arthritis.Rheumatoid arthritis. 3.3. Osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease.Osteoarthritis / degenerative joint disease. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  52. 52. UncommonUncommon Neisseria gonorrhea, Str, Staph. Pneumococci,Neisseria gonorrhea, Str, Staph. Pneumococci, tubercle bacilli, H. influenzaetubercle bacilli, H. influenzae  Direct spread of a local infection or blood stream /Direct spread of a local infection or blood stream / lymphatic metastasis.lymphatic metastasis. C/F:C/F: -- Severe pain in the joint.Severe pain in the joint.  Extreme tendernessExtreme tenderness  HealingHealing  results in ankylosis.results in ankylosis. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  53. 53. H-PH-P DestructionDestruction  articular cartilage and articular disc.articular cartilage and articular disc.  Obliteration of joint spaceObliteration of joint space  by the development ofby the development of granulation tissuegranulation tissue  Transforms into scar tissue.Transforms into scar tissue. Rx:Rx:  Antibiotics – in the acute phaseAntibiotics – in the acute phase  Meniscetomy / condylectomy is advocated in the advancedMeniscetomy / condylectomy is advocated in the advanced cases.cases. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  54. 54. Rheumatoid arthritisRheumatoid arthritis  Chronic autoimmune disorderChronic autoimmune disorder  non-suppurative inflammatory destruction of thenon-suppurative inflammatory destruction of the joints.joints.  Etiology:Etiology:  UnknownUnknown  Cross reaction of antibody against microorganismsCross reaction of antibody against microorganisms deposited in the synovial membrane.deposited in the synovial membrane. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  55. 55.  A reactive macrophage – laden fibroblasticA reactive macrophage – laden fibroblastic proliferation from the synovium creeps onto theproliferation from the synovium creeps onto the joint surface.joint surface. ↓↓ Releases collagenases & proteasesReleases collagenases & proteases ↓↓ Destroys the cartilage & boneDestroys the cartilage & bone  TMJ involvementTMJ involvement  20%20% www.indiandentalacademy.com
  56. 56. C/F:C/F:  M:F = 1:3M:F = 1:3  M = 25-30 yrs;M = 25-30 yrs; F = 35-45 yrsF = 35-45 yrs  Early stages manifestsEarly stages manifests Rheumatoid arthritisRheumatoid arthritis www.indiandentalacademy.com
  57. 57.  Pain, swelling and stiffness jointPain, swelling and stiffness joint  Clenching the teeth on one side produces pain ofClenching the teeth on one side produces pain of contra lateral joint.contra lateral joint.  Destruction of condylar headDestruction of condylar head  receding chin &receding chin & malocclusionmalocclusion www.indiandentalacademy.com
  58. 58. R/F:R/F:  Flattened condylar headFlattened condylar head  An irregular surface of temporal fossaAn irregular surface of temporal fossa  Anterior displacement of the condyleAnterior displacement of the condyle  High resolution CTHigh resolution CT  erosions of the condyle &erosions of the condyle & glenoid fossae.glenoid fossae. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  59. 59. H-P :H-P :  HyperplasiaHyperplasia of synovial lining cellsof synovial lining cells  Hyperemia, edemaHyperemia, edema and inflammation of the synovialand inflammation of the synovial tissuestissues  diffuse infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells into thediffuse infiltration of chronic inflammatory cells into the articular architecture.articular architecture. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  60. 60.  destructiondestruction of articular surface of the condyle.of articular surface of the condyle.  Invasion of the cartilage and its replacement byInvasion of the cartilage and its replacement by granulation tissue.granulation tissue.  Perforation of meniscusPerforation of meniscus www.indiandentalacademy.com
  61. 61. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  62. 62. Lab findings:Lab findings:  80% of patients80% of patients  ↑rheumatoid factor↑rheumatoid factor ANA detected in 50%ANA detected in 50% ↑↑ESRESR Mild anemiaMild anemia www.indiandentalacademy.com
  63. 63. Rx & Prognosis:Rx & Prognosis:  Anti-inflammatory drugsAnti-inflammatory drugs  Corticosteoids.Corticosteoids.  Surgical interventionSurgical intervention www.indiandentalacademy.com
  64. 64. OsteoarthritisOsteoarthritis Disorder of articular cartilage, subcondral boneDisorder of articular cartilage, subcondral bone with secondary inflammation of the synovialwith secondary inflammation of the synovial membranemembrane Etiology:Etiology: unknown.unknown.  GeneticGenetic  Aging process.Aging process.  Chronic microtraumaChronic microtrauma  PrimaryPrimary  above 50 yrs & asymptomaticabove 50 yrs & asymptomatic  SecondarySecondary  due to trauma, metabolic diseasedue to trauma, metabolic disease www.indiandentalacademy.com
  65. 65. C/F:C/F:  Unilateral pain over the condyle & over muscles ofUnilateral pain over the condyle & over muscles of masticationmastication  Limitation of mandibular openingLimitation of mandibular opening  Crepitus and stiffnessCrepitus and stiffness  Deviation of mandible towards painful sideDeviation of mandible towards painful side www.indiandentalacademy.com
  66. 66. R / F:R / F:  Obliteration of the joint spaceObliteration of the joint space  Surface irregularities and protruberancesSurface irregularities and protruberances  Flattening of the articular surface.Flattening of the articular surface.  Radiolucent subchondral cystsRadiolucent subchondral cysts  Ossification within the synovial membraneOssification within the synovial membrane www.indiandentalacademy.com
  67. 67. H-P /F:H-P /F:  Degeneration of cartilage cellsDegeneration of cartilage cells  infiltration of chronic inflammatory cellsinfiltration of chronic inflammatory cells  Loss of osteocytesLoss of osteocytes  fatty degeneration & necrosis of the marrowfatty degeneration & necrosis of the marrow  Large degenerative space beneath the articularLarge degenerative space beneath the articular cartilage (Subchondral cysts)cartilage (Subchondral cysts) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  68. 68. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  69. 69. Rx:Rx:  NSAIDs, heat, soft diet, rest and occlusalNSAIDs, heat, soft diet, rest and occlusal splintssplints  ArthroplastyArthroplasty  Orofacial physiotherapy.Orofacial physiotherapy. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  70. 70. NEOPLASTICNEOPLASTIC www.indiandentalacademy.com
  71. 71.  Neoplasms and tumor-like growths, benign andNeoplasms and tumor-like growths, benign and malignant, may involve the TMJ.malignant, may involve the TMJ. Etiology:Etiology: UnknownUnknown  From embryonic mesenchymal remnants ofFrom embryonic mesenchymal remnants of synovium.synovium.  That become metaplastic, calcify, break off into theThat become metaplastic, calcify, break off into the joint spacejoint space  Chondromas, osteomas and osteochondromas areChondromas, osteomas and osteochondromas are common benign tumors.common benign tumors. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  72. 72. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  73. 73. Osteochondroma – bone capped with cartilage and denseOsteochondroma – bone capped with cartilage and dense collagenous tissuecollagenous tissuewww.indiandentalacademy.com
  74. 74.  CT scan and arthroscopy is necessary forCT scan and arthroscopy is necessary for accurate diagnosis.accurate diagnosis. Rx:Rx:  Conservative and surgical removal of involvedConservative and surgical removal of involved synovium and articular disk.synovium and articular disk. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  75. 75. EXTRA-ARTICULAREXTRA-ARTICULAR www.indiandentalacademy.com
  76. 76.  A variety of extraarticular disturbances mayA variety of extraarticular disturbances may manifest themselves clinically as TMJ problems.manifest themselves clinically as TMJ problems.  Impacted molar teethImpacted molar teeth  Sinusitis & Middle ear diseaseSinusitis & Middle ear disease  Infratemporal cellulitisInfratemporal cellulitis  Neuritis of the 3Neuritis of the 3rdrd division of the trigeminal nerve.division of the trigeminal nerve.  Odontolgia.Odontolgia.  Overclosure of the mandible due to severe dentalOverclosure of the mandible due to severe dental attrition.attrition.  Costen’s syndrome.Costen’s syndrome. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  77. 77. TEMPORO MANDIBULAR JOINTTEMPORO MANDIBULAR JOINT SYNDROMESYNDROME www.indiandentalacademy.com
  78. 78.  Most common cause of facial pain afterMost common cause of facial pain after toothache.toothache.  TMD can be classified broadly as:TMD can be classified broadly as:  TMD secondary to myofacial pain andTMD secondary to myofacial pain and dysfunction (MPD).dysfunction (MPD).  TMD secondary to true articular diseaseTMD secondary to true articular disease www.indiandentalacademy.com
  79. 79. Etiology:Etiology:  Tissue injuryTissue injury  Physical stressPhysical stress  Bruxism and day time jawBruxism and day time jaw clenching in a stressed and anxious person.clenching in a stressed and anxious person.  Psychological & behavioural abnormalitiesPsychological & behavioural abnormalities  Poor nutritional statusPoor nutritional status  Genetic predispositionGenetic predisposition www.indiandentalacademy.com
  80. 80. DIGAMMATIC RERESENTATION OF ETIOLOGY OF MPDS PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGIC THEORY OF MPDS (Modified by LASKIN in 1969) www.indiandentalacademy.com
  81. 81. C /F:C /F:  Constant diffuse unilateral painConstant diffuse unilateral pain  Severe in the morning and worsens as daySevere in the morning and worsens as day progressesprogresses  Radiates to cervical region, shoulders and backRadiates to cervical region, shoulders and back  Limitation of jaw movementLimitation of jaw movement  Deviation to the affected siteDeviation to the affected site www.indiandentalacademy.com
  82. 82. VII. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINTVII. TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT SYNDROME (TM disorder)SYNDROME (TM disorder) Cl / Ft:Cl / Ft:  Tenderness in MMTenderness in MM  Angle of mandibleAngle of mandible  Anterior temporal region & coronoid aspectAnterior temporal region & coronoid aspect www.indiandentalacademy.com
  83. 83. Rx:Rx:  PhysiotherapyPhysiotherapy  moist heat, TENS, Aucpressure,moist heat, TENS, Aucpressure, Acupuncture.Acupuncture.  Behavioural and relaxation techniquesBehavioural and relaxation techniques  Occlusal splint therapyOcclusal splint therapy  NSAIDs, Muscle relaxantsNSAIDs, Muscle relaxants www.indiandentalacademy.com
  84. 84. 2. True intra-articular disease :2. True intra-articular disease :  Disk displacement disorder.Disk displacement disorder.  Chronic recurrent dislocations.Chronic recurrent dislocations.  Degenerative joint disorders.Degenerative joint disorders.  Ankylosis.Ankylosis.  InfectionInfection www.indiandentalacademy.com
  85. 85.  Etiology:Etiology:  Malocclusion.Malocclusion.  Jaw clenching.Jaw clenching.  Bruxism.Bruxism.  Personality disordersPersonality disorders  Increased pain sensitivity.Increased pain sensitivity.  Stress and anxiety.Stress and anxiety. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  86. 86. C/F:C/F:  Affects young woman aged 20-40 yrs.Affects young woman aged 20-40 yrs.  M:F – 1:4.M:F – 1:4.  In TMD pain is unilateral associated with clicking,In TMD pain is unilateral associated with clicking, popping and snapping sounds.popping and snapping sounds.  Limited jaw opening due to pain / disk displacement.Limited jaw opening due to pain / disk displacement.  Associated with chewing and may radiate to head.Associated with chewing and may radiate to head. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  87. 87.  Treatment & Prognosis:Treatment & Prognosis: 1. Self limiting.1. Self limiting. 2. Conservative treatment involving self care2. Conservative treatment involving self care practices.practices.  Rehabilitation aimed at eliminating muscleRehabilitation aimed at eliminating muscle spasms.spasms. 3. NSAIDs3. NSAIDs  Prognosis is good.Prognosis is good. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  88. 88. InvestigationsInvestigations  TMJTMJ  TMJ imagingTMJ imaging  Panoramic radiographsPanoramic radiographs  Transcranial viewTranscranial view  Transpharyngeal viewTranspharyngeal view  Transorbital viewTransorbital view  Reverse Towne’s viewReverse Towne’s view  Submento-vertex (SMV) viewSubmento-vertex (SMV) view  Conventional tomographyConventional tomography  ArthrographyArthrography www.indiandentalacademy.com
  89. 89.  Computed tomography (CT)Computed tomography (CT)  Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)  ArthroscopyArthroscopy  Bone scanBone scan www.indiandentalacademy.com
  90. 90. ReferencesReferences  Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology. 5Shafer’s Textbook of Oral Pathology. 5thth edition.edition.  Neville: Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. 2Neville: Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. 2ndnd edition.edition.  Jaffery P. Okeson – Management ofJaffery P. Okeson – Management of Temporomandibular disorders and occlusion.Temporomandibular disorders and occlusion.  Martin S. Greenberg, Michael Glick – Burkit’s oralMartin S. Greenberg, Michael Glick – Burkit’s oral medicine and diagnosis.medicine and diagnosis.  Franklin C.D.: Pathology of the temporomandibularFranklin C.D.: Pathology of the temporomandibular joint. Current Diagnostic Pathology (2006): 12, 31-39.joint. Current Diagnostic Pathology (2006): 12, 31-39. www.indiandentalacademy.com
  91. 91. www.indiandentalacademy.com

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