Indoor Radio Positioning Systems
Introduction to Positioning
Indoor Radio Positioning
Discussion and Challenges
INTRODUCTION TO POSITIONING
There are basically two types of positioning systems
Where am I? the user wants to know his/her position
Where are you? the system wants to know a target position
Position information is required for many applications
Location based services (LBS)
Positioning can be achieved using radiowaves,
ultrasound, and infrared.
The advantages of using radiowaves is longer range
suitablility for non-line-of-sight positioning.
Information required for positioning:
Time of arrival (ToA)
Time difference of arrival (TDoA)
Angle of arrival (AoA)
Received signal strength (RSS)
POSITIONING METHOD: TRIANGULATION
Triangulation can be used to find the location of an
object C (such as a ship);
Using the angle α at A, angle β at B and the distance
between A and B, we can find the coordinates of C –
the position of C.
Two angles and one distance are required for a 2D or
POSITIONING METHOD: TRILATERATION
Trilateration uses the known locations of reference points and
the distance between the object and each reference point. To
accurately and uniquely determine the relative location of the
object, 3 reference points are needed for a 2D plane and 4
points are required for a 3D space.
POSITIONING METHOD: MULTILATERATION
Multilateration, also known as hyperbolic positioning, is the
process of locating an object by accurately computing the time
difference of arrival (TDoA) of a signal emitted from the object
to three or more receivers.
4 receivers are needed for a 2D
R2 5 receivers are needed
for a 3D space.
POSITIONING METHOD: FINGERPRINTING
Fingerprinting: the location is estimated by comparing the
measured results with that in a database.
The information of comparison could be the signal strength,
profile, and angle of arrival.
POSITIONING METHOD COMPARISON
Method Triangula- Trilateration Multi- Finger-
tion lateration printer
At least 4
Information One At least 3
required distance & ToAs
without AoA even AoA)
two angles without AoA
Advantages Fewer Rx Simple No sync Simple
required (2), positioning between Tx positioning
no sync req. algorithms and Rx alg and sys
Drawbacks High AoA High sync Sync Prior meas.
accuracy req. for Tx between Tx Large data
requirement and Rx req. base,
INDOOR RADIO POSITIONING SYSTEMS
Why do we need indoor radio positioning systems?
Because the outdoor systems (such as GPS) don’t work indoors!
Because there are many possible attractive positioning
applications in security, asset tracking, navigation, health care.
What are the problems?
What options do we have
Cellular radio based systems? The precision is not very
COMPANY SYSTEM ENVIRONMENT REPORTED
Nokia GSM Urban / Suburban 67%
CPS GSM Suburban 69%
KSI AOA IS-136 67%
VTT GSM Suburban 67%
US Wireless AMPS Light Urban / Suburban 67%
WiFi/WLAN/Network based systems? A possibility, but the
accuracy could be a problem
Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) based systems? Seems to be the
best option for most applications
UWB signals are relatively immune to multipath effects
It consists of many tags (T) and base stations (BS) at known
locations which are connected to the Monitoring Centre (MC)
DISCUSSIONS AND CHALLENGES
A number of systems have been
developed, but they only work well
provided that there is a LOS path
which means that we need to deploy
a lot of BS, the cost could be very
Resource allocation and anti-collision are two of the major
issues to be considered
Synchronisation of BS
Base station locations and deployment
Pathloss and radio coverage: they are functions of building
materials and frequency: the higher the frequency, the higher
the loss (hence the smaller the coverage). Through wall
positioning is extremely challenging.
SUPPORT AND GUIDANCE OF
Dr. YI HUANG