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Dynamic cluster based adaptive gateway discovery mechanisms in an integrated internet manet

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  • 1. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME226DYNAMIC CLUSTER BASED ADAPTIVE GATEWAYDISCOVERY MECHANISMS IN AN INTEGRATED INTERNETMANETMd Misbahuddin Mahabubul Haq Atif Rafi-U-ZamanCSED,MJCET CSED,RITS CSED,MJCETHyderabad,AP,India Hyderabad,AP,India Hyderabad,AP,IndiaABSTRACTThe interconnection of the wired Internet with mobile ad hoc networks is called Integrated-Internet MANET. In this interconnection, various issues arise. Primary among them is the routing ofpackets between mobile nodes in the ad hoc network and fixed nodes in the wired network. Therationale behind using dynamic cluster based mobile gateways is to increase the reliability of theInternet access and enhance the performance of the hybrid, wireless network in terms of high datadelivery ratio and low average delay. The results of the simulations show the impact of the number ofMANET nodes connected to the Internet, and the mobility of dynamic cluster based mobile gateways.This is consistent with the design and functionality of dynamic cluster based mobile gateways, whichare moving around the border of access points’ coverage area in order to provide MANET nodes withInternet connectivity. Existing system of hybrid gateway discovery mechanism by allocating staticallyadjust value to TTL. The conclusion of this paper is to develop hybrid gateway discovery mechanismby allocating dynamic value to TTL by using clusters with mobile gateways.Keywords: MANET, Routing, Integration Strategy, Gateway Discovery.1.INTRODUCTIONThe Integration of the MANETs and infrastructure networks such as Internet extends thenetwork coverage and increases the application domain of ad hoc networks.The difference in the network architectures of the MANET and the Internet imposed varioussorts of assumptions on the structure, topology of the underlying networks and on the communicationpatterns of mobile nodes in both networks. Integrating these two networks into a hybrid network is achallenging problem due to these differences. This inter connection is achieved by using gateways,which act as bridges between a MANET and the Internet. Communication of the mobile devices in anad hoc network and a fixed device in the Internet requires the modification of the ad hoc routingprotocol. Before a mobile node can communicate with the Internet host it needs to find a route to aINTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED RESEARCH INENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY (IJARET)ISSN 0976 - 6480 (Print)ISSN 0976 - 6499 (Online)Volume 4, Issue 3, April 2013, pp. 226-232© IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijaret.aspJournal Impact Factor (2013): 5.8376 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJARET© I A E M E
  • 2. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME227gateway. Most of the previous approaches use the shortest path for the selection of gateway foronward transmission of data from MANET nodes to the wired hosts. In the proposed approach ofKumar et. al., the length of the routing queue in addition to minimum hop count metric is used for theselection of gateway by the mobile node. This approach has been extended by updating the path to thegateway on the request of mobile node which facilitates efficient handoff from one gateway toanother, and thus maintaining continuous connectivity to the fixed host. Another extension is thatrouting queue length and min hop count metric is not only used to discover the routes to the gatewaybut also for the routing in the local ad hoc domain among the ad hoc host. Further, the occupancylevel of each of the nodes is updated every short interval of time. This updated occupancy is sent to allthe neighbors within the radio transmission range within the hello packet. This reduces the delayalong the path traversal.The primary challenge in the design of Hybrid Gateway Discovery is how to determine anoptimal proactive area. If the proactive area is large (i.e. a large TTL value) more overhead is incurredin maintaining routes in a wider area. On the other hand, if proactive area is small, then lessmaintenance overhead is incurred but more delay in Gateway Discovery is experienced. In traditionalHybrid Gateway Discovery approach, the TTL is set statically and never changed. This leads to arigid implementation of the proactive area. Existing integration strategies which use the hybridapproach set the proactive area statically and do not dynamically adjust it, which may not turn out tobe a proper range anymore for changing network conditions.A second issue is determining the periodicity of the GW_ADV messages. The periodicity of theGW_ADV message determines the number of GW_ADV messages that will be flooded into theMANET per second. A high periodicity leads to more control messages in a sparse MANET whereaslow periodicity may result in starvation of Internet connectivity to mobile nodes in a dense MANET.A modified Hybrid Gateway Discovery mechanism which dynamically adjusts value of TTL andperiodicity of TTL depending on the MANET characteristics in order to achieve a good trade-offbetween performance and network overhead is called an Adaptive Gateway Discovery Mechanism.A mobile node which number of hops away from the gateway i.e. which is not a part of proactivezone, even these types of mobile nodes can also registered with this gateway and this is calledadaptive gateway discovery in which we overcome the problem which is present in hybrid gatewaydiscovery i.e. the TTL value is fixed.2. RELATED WORK2.1 Existing ArchitectureThe proposed architecture shown in Figure 2.1 consists of the Mobile ad hoc Network(MANET), with Clusters either overlapped or non-overlapped. Each Cluster has a Cluster Head andthe overlapping Clusters have a Cluster Gateway . At least one Cluster Head shall be in thetransmission range of the Foreign Agent (FA) in the Internet backbone. The Correspondent Node(CN) is assumed to be present in the wired Internet. The Integrated Protocol uses the basicfunctionalities of the Mobile IP as well as CGSR. We assume that the CHs are close to FA in order toprovide the Internet connectivity to the MANET nodes. The CHs are assumed to be registered withsome FA at any time.The Agent advertisements issued by the FA are meant only for the CHs. Theyare ignored by the ad hoc hosts and CGs. So, we use proactive approach of registration of the CH withthe FA. If any CH receives advertisements from multiple FAs, then it selects that FA which is lightlyloaded. All the communication from the MANET nodes towards the Internet side is through the CH.Therefore the CHs acts like a Mobile IP proxy for the MANET mobile nodes and the visiting mobilenodes.
  • 3. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME228Figure 2.1. Existing Architecture3. INTEGRATED PROTOCOL DESIGN3.1. Proposed ArchitectureIn the envisioned integrated MANET network, mobiles are distinguished as either mobilenodes or mobile gateway. Based on their geographical locations, directions of movement, and othermetrics, mobile nodes are grouped into different clusters. Clustering enhances effective broadcastingand relaying of messages, such as GWADV messages and reduces the overhead associated withsignaling, as links among mobile nodes within the same cluster tend to be more stable. The mainchallenge in clustering lies in the dynamic topology changes in MANET and hence, an efficientclustering should be based on adequate metrics and should take into account the frequent topologychanges.A modified Hybrid Gateway Discovery mechanism which dynamically adjusts value of TTLand periodicity of TTL depending on the MANET characteristics in order to achieve a good trade-offbetween performance and network overhead is called an Adaptive Gateway Discovery Mechanism.Several novel strategies have been proposed recently which implement adaptive gateway discoverymechanisms in different ways. The purpose of this survey is to review these adaptive gatewaydiscovery mechanisms.Figure3.1: Dynamic cluster based adaptive gateway Discovery mechanism in IIM
  • 4. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME2294. IMPLEMENTATION ISSUES4.1 Network Simulator (NS)Network Simulator (NS) is an object-oriented, discrete event simulator for networkingresearch. NS provides substantial support for simulation of TCP, routing and multicast protocols overwired and wireless networks. The simulator is a result of an on-going effort of research anddevelopment. Even though there is a considerable confidence in NS, it is not a polished and finishedproduct yet and bugs are being discovered and corrected continuously. NS is written in C++, with anOTcl1interpreter as a command and configuration interface. The C++ part, which is fast to run butslower to change, is used for detailed protocol implementation. The OTcl part, on the other hand,which runs much slower but can be changed very quickly, is used for simulation configuration. Oneof the advantages of this split-language programming approach is that it allows for fast generation oflarge scenarios. To simply use the simulator, it is sufficient to know OTcl. On the other hand, onedisadvantage is that modifying and extending the simulator requires programming and debugging inboth languages simultaneously.4.2 Network Animator (NAM)Network Animator (NAM) is an animation tool for viewing network simulation traces and real worldpacket traces [17]. It supports topology layout, packet level animation and various data inspectiontools.Before starting to use NAM, a trace file need to be created. This trace file is usually generatedby NS. It contains topology information, e.g. nodes and links, as well as packet traces.5. SIMULATION RESULTS5.1. Simulation EnvironmentThe effectiveness of the proposed adaptive gateway discovery approach is demonstrated bycarrying out extensive experiments in NS-2 simulator. Different sizes of ad hoc networks are tested.The size of ad hoc network with 20 mobile nodes are tested. These varying size MANETs wereintegrated with Internet using Mobile Gateways as well as Fixed Gateways. Different mobility modelsfor MANET nodes have been utilized to explore the performance of proposed protocol. We also tookinto account the different placements of mobile nodes in topographic area. In that, the density ofmobile nodes near the gateway nodes is varied. Few mobility models used number of mobile nodesthat are within the close proximity of gateway nodes, and apparently this produced good results asindicated below. Whereas placement of nodes far away from the gateway nodes caused significantincrease in the number of packets dropped.The topology used is a rectangular area 800 meter length and 500 meter width. The wirednodes have the bandwidth capacity of 10Mbps. Wireless Transmission range of mobile node is set to250m. Simulations for all scenarios were carried out for the duration of 900 seconds. Out of themobile nodes used in simulation 5 were designated as either Constant Bit Rate of File TransferProtocol based traffic generating agents.5.2. Simulation ResultsPacket Delivery Fraction (PDF): The ratio of the number of packets originated by the“application layer” to the number of packets received by the destination is PDF. Figure 5.1 illustratesthe PDF as a function of changing mobile node speeds. The speeds of mobile nodes used ranged from5, 10, 15, 20, and 25. Since increase in speed causes the route maintenance overhead, there isdegradation in PDF as the speed increases. Therefore it is mandatory for mobile nodes to move with amoderate speed as high speed would cause route breakages. And this would have an impact on thecontrol overhead too.
  • 5. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME230Figure 5.1 Packet Delivery Fraction Vs Node SpeedEnd-End Delay: As it can be observed from Figure 5.2, the end-end delay in the protocol increases asthe speed of the mobile node increases.Figure 5.2 End-End Delay Vs Node SpeedRouting Overhead: As it is evident from the figure 5.3, the routing overhead of the proposedprotocol is proportional to the speed of the mobile nodes. If mobile nodes move with less speed, theroutes tend to be stable and do not cause frequent route breakage induced route maintenance. On theother hand if nodes are moving with high speeds, this causes the topology to be very volatile androutes are stable enough, and hence a large number of control packets need to be exchanged. Howeverif the nodes speeds are moderate, then our protocol registers minimal overhead as the routes arestable. Moreover, because of the provision for multiple routes to exists between source node andgateway node, a large many number of broadcasts of route requests and advertisements are avoided.However, the size of the route request and route reply packets have slightly increased due to additionof few fields to accommodate trust and residual route load capacities in them.
  • 6. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME231Figure 5.3 Routing Overhead vs. Node Speed5.3. SummaryIn this chapter we presented the simulation related issues and performance analysis of theproposed protocol. The implementation of protocol is carried out in different architectures ofintegration such as three tier and hybrid. These simulations have been carried out varying differentparameters such as number of nodes, speeds of the mobile nodes etc. This is consistent with thedesign and functionality of dynamic cluster based mobile gateways, which are moving around theborder of access points coverage area in order to provide MANET nodes with Internet connectivity.6. CONCLUSIONThe rationale behind using dynamic cluster based mobile gateways is to increase thereliability of the Internet access and enhance the performance of the hybrid, wireless network in termsof high data delivery ratio and low average delay. The results of the simulations show the impact ofthe number of MANET nodes connected to the Internet, and the mobility of dynamic cluster basedmobile gateways.Although many solutions have been suggested to the integration problem, we believe thatother issues have not yet been addressed. One research avenue is to design an efficient discoveryprotocol of fixed and Dynamic mobile gateways by using adaptive approach. This discovery protocolshould be application oriented in order to find and locate these fixed and mobile servers. One of theadvantages of this discovery protocol is to minimize the overhead that would be introduced if existingproactive or reactive routing protocol were used. Another research avenue we are interested in is theinvestigation of different selection schemes of fixed and Dynamic mobile gateways in order to assurea desirable QOS of wireless Internet access to mobile nodes.7. REFERENCES[1] A Three-Tier Architecture for Integrating Mobile Ad Hoc Network and the Internet using aHierarchical Integrated Routing Protocol-rafi u zaman(2008)[2]Maximal Source Coverage Adaptive Gateway Discovery for Hybrid Ad Hoc Networks – Pedro H.Ruiz et al (2007)[3]Using Fuzzy Logic in Hybrid Multi-hop Wireless Networks – A.J. Yuste et al (2010)[4]Adaptive Distributed Gateway Discovery in Hybrid Wireless Networks – Usman Javaid et al(2008)[5] Adaptive Gateway Management in Heterogeneous Wireless Networks – R. Manoharan et al(2011)[6] Study on the Need for Adaptive Gateway Discovery in MANETs – A. Trivino (2009)
  • 7. International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering and Technology (IJARET), ISSN0976 – 6480(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6499(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, April (2013), © IAEME232[7] QoS aware Internet Access Schemes for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks – Park et al (2007)[8] Multiple End-to-End QoS Metrics Gateway Selection Scheme in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks –Safdar H. Bouk et al (2009)[9] An Effective Gateway Discovery Mechanism in an Integrated Internet-MANET (IIM)-rafi uzaman(2010)[10] Alex Ali Hamidian ”A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in NS 2”Department of Communication System s Lund Institute of Technology, Lund University Box 118 S-221 00 Lund Sweden, January 2003. 5.J. D. Solomon, “Mobile IP: The Internet Unplugged,”Prentice-Hall PTR, 1998 6. A Study of Internet Connectivity for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks in NS 2[11] Ing. Bernardo Leal "Modeling and Perform ance Evaluation of MANET Handover" Advisor:Dott. Ing. Luigi ATZORI Curriculum: ING-INF/03 - Ph.D. in Electronic and Computer Engineering,March 2012.[12] Rakesh Kumar, Anil K. Sarje and Manoj Misra "Review Strategies and Analysis of Mobile AdHoc Network-Internet Integration Solutions", IJCSI International Journal of Computer ScienceIssues, Vol. 7, Issue 4, No 6, July 2010.[13] Johnson D.B.; Maltz D.A.; Hu Y.; Jetcheva J.G. The Dynamic Source Routing Protocol forMobile Ad Hoc Networks (DSR), IETF Internet Draft, Feb 2002. Work in progress.[14] Antonios Argyriou and Vijay K. Madisetti. Performance evaluation and optimization of sctp inwireless ad-hoc networks. In LCN, pages 317–318, 2003.[15] Perkins C.; Belding-Royer E.M.; Das S. Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV)Routing, IETF Internet Draft, Jan 2002.Work in progress.[16] Lei H, Perkins C. Ad hoc networking with mobile IP. Proceedings of the Second EuropeanPersonal Mobile Communications Conference (EPMCC’1997), Bonn, Germany, 30 September–2October 1997.[17] McCanne S.; Floyd S. ns Network Simulator. http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/. Fall K; VaradhanK., and the VINT project. The ns manual.[18] Belding-Royer E.M., Sun Y.; Perkins C. Global Connectivity for IPv4 Mobile Ad socNetworks, IETF Internet Draft, Nov. 2001 .Work in progress.[19] Bernard M. Gateway Detection and Selection for Wireless Multihop Internet Access,Mastersthesis, (Olching, Germany), 2002.[20] Clausen T.; Jacquet P.; Laouiti A.; Minet P.; Muhlethaler P.; Qayyum A.; Viennot L OptimizedLink State Routing Protocol, IETF Internet Draft, July 2002. Work a progress.Comer D E.Internetworking With TCP/IP Volume I: Principles, Protocols, and -Lrchitectures, fourth edition,2000.[21] Prerna Malhotra, “A Survey of Energy Efficient AODV Routing Algorithms in Manet”,International journal of Computer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 4, Issue 2,2013, pp. 213 - 220, ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.[22] Venkatesh Kumar .P, Vallikannu A.L and Kavitha B.C, “Effective Broadcastingin Mobile Ad Hoc Networks Using Grid Based Mechanism”, International journal ofComputer Engineering & Technology (IJCET), Volume 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp. 39 - 46,ISSN Print: 0976 – 6367, ISSN Online: 0976 – 6375.

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