New Literacies in a Digital Age: How teachers can make a contribution Hiller A. Spires, Ph.D. Professor & Senior Research ...
Three of my favorite words . . . (today!)  <ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Ning </li></ul>
Tweet if you like <ul><li>Post Your Questions/Comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have a laptop and a twitter account, p...
<ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be literate  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can new lit...
http://www.flickr.com/photos/lori_greig/2202727502/ A New Educational Era
Educational Challenges?? http://www.flickr.com/photos/circulating/254126209/sizes/m/
Technology Integration… The Extremes Technology…The Extremes Clip1: http://www.hulu.com/watch/99923/the-simpsons-bart-gets...
<ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be literate today? </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmatasic/3473067292/sizes/m/
America’s Educational Challenge <ul><li>High School Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19% of males 16-24 are dropouts </li></...
Future supply of High School Graduates  (Andreas Schleicher, OECD, 2007)
Future supply of College Graduates  (Andreas Schleicher,OECD, 2007)
How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US) (Levy and Murnane, ...
Expert thinking and problem solving  involves effective pattern matching based on detailed knowledge.  The set of skills u...
Having Our Say: Middle Grade Student Perceptions of School, Technologies, and Academic Engagement <ul><li>Results from a s...
Having Our Say: US & Chinese Teacher’s Perceptions <ul><li>Benefits of Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that computers...
<ul><li>  Web 2.0 Literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Access content </li></ul><ul><li>Create content </li></ul><ul><li>Mash-up c...
In addition to being skilled with print text . . .    <ul><li>The “literate” person today needs to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>...
<ul><ul><li>How can new literacies help us  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think, learn, & work in innovative </li></ul></ul><...
Have you read?
EDUTOPIA: A Digital Odyssey  <ul><li>To view video visit edutopia.org </li></ul>
Partnership for 21 st  Century Skills Framework http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/route21/
Partnership for 21 st  Century Skills <ul><li>Learning and Innovation Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity and Innovati...
Four Skill Areas to Develop With Your Students <ul><ul><li>Online Reading Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video a...
Access to information We live in an age of exploding access to information — “a tsunami of data.”  Richard Saul Wurman
Online Reading (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004) Understanding  – Students know when information makes sense. Relevanc...
Creative Synthesis -- A 21st Century Skill Diagram by Jon Rowe
<ul><li>Grassroots Video/Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Using media to engage students in creating and learning content. </l...
Inquiry Learning Project (ILP) Kits Spires, Hervey & Watson, 2009
Daniel Pink’s Six Senses (2005) <ul><li>Design - not only function   </li></ul><ul><li>Story – not only argument </li></ul...
Web 2.0 and Social Networking <ul><li>Henry Jenkins et al. (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>New media literacies that evolved  thr...
Henry Jenkins (2006) 21 st  Century Media Literacies Framework  21st Centuries Literacies Framework Play Capacity to exper...
Games Galore! <ul><li>Game playing is universal--almost all 12-17 year olds play games. </li></ul><ul><li>Game playing is ...
Marc Prensky <ul><li>ENGAGE ME or ENRAGE ME </li></ul><ul><li>What Today’s Learners Demand </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rather than...
Games and  21st Century Learning <ul><li>American Federation of Scientists (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Game players are able ...
Society continuously adapts to innovation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWaQz1HONog
Writing  “will create forgetfulness in men’s souls because they will not use their memories; they will trust to the extern...
/ <ul><li>PISA data </li></ul>Encyclopedia as Innovation Accessing information at home
Innovation Scale up Took over 50 years for the electrification of America  http://www.flickr.com/photos/bunaen/125338110/
 
Famous Last Words . . .  <ul><li>“ Who in their right mind would ever need more than 640k of ram!?”  </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
<ul><ul><li>How will you contribute to the  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>world of new literacies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li...
New Learning Ecology Spires, Wiebe, Hollebrands, Young, & Lee, 2009)
5 Suggestions for  21 st  Century Teachers <ul><li>Invent your TPACK </li></ul><ul><li>Design project-based inquiries </li...
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra, & Koehler, 2006 Technological  Pedagogical Content Knowledge C...
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra, & Koehler, 2006 Context Technological Knowledge (TK)
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Content Knowledge (CN)
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Technological  Pedagogical Knowledge Te...
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Technological  Content  Knowledge Techn...
Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Pedagogical Content Knowledge Pedagogic...
Got TPACK? Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context TPACK
http://www.flickr.com/photos/heroethic/3269587097/ INQUIRY
Project-Based Inquiry Spires, H., Wiebe, E., Young, C., Hollenbrands, K., and Lee, J. (2009) .
Bloom’s Taxonomy  <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Application ...
Any Value in Inverting Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy? Anderson & Krathwol, (2001)
Create <ul><li>The learner creates new ideas and information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons...
Global Skills Set A New Global Skill Set
Performance-Based Assessment
Professional Learning Communities Professional Learning Communities & Networks http://www.networkweaving.com/blog/uploaded...
New Literacies & Global Leaning <ul><li>Project-Based Inquiry Master’s Program at NCSU: </li></ul><ul><li>http://cednlgl.w...
<ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be literate  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can new lit...
Educational Challenges?? The future is already here – it's just not evenly distributed. William Gibson http://www.thevargu...
The Last Word <ul><li>“ This is the moment—this is the most important moment right now.  We are about making a contributio...
Thank you! Let me hear from you. [email_address] http://static.desktopnexus.com/wallpapers/27127-bigthumbnail.jpg
References
References
References <ul><li>Spires, H., Lee, J., Turner, K., & Johnson, J. (2008) . Having our say: Middle grades students' perspec...
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New Literacies in a Digital Age

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Keynote presentation for World View at Chapel Hill, October 14, 2009

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New Literacies in a Digital Age

  1. 1. New Literacies in a Digital Age: How teachers can make a contribution Hiller A. Spires, Ph.D. Professor & Senior Research Fellow North Carolina State University October 14, 2009 World View Global Education Symposium
  2. 2. Three of my favorite words . . . (today!) <ul><li>Twitter </li></ul><ul><li>Moodle </li></ul><ul><li>Ning </li></ul>
  3. 3. Tweet if you like <ul><li>Post Your Questions/Comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have a laptop and a twitter account, post your questions and comments as I’m talking. Post to @newlit </li></ul></ul><ul><li>View Other’s Questions/Comments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Or you can view other’s posts by visiting twitter.com/newlit </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be literate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can new literacies help us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think, learn, & work in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovative ways? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you contribute to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>world of new literacies? </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmatasic/3473067292/sizes/m/
  5. 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/lori_greig/2202727502/ A New Educational Era
  6. 6. Educational Challenges?? http://www.flickr.com/photos/circulating/254126209/sizes/m/
  7. 7. Technology Integration… The Extremes Technology…The Extremes Clip1: http://www.hulu.com/watch/99923/the-simpsons-bart-gets-a-z?c=123:211 Clip2: http://www.hulu.com/watch/99923/the-simpsons-bart-gets-a-z?c=469:521
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be literate today? </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmatasic/3473067292/sizes/m/
  9. 9. America’s Educational Challenge <ul><li>High School Dropouts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>19% of males 16-24 are dropouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>28% of Latinos, 21% of African Americans, and 12% of European Americans are dropouts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each dropout cost tax payers more than a $250,000 over his/her lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Teacher Turnover </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only about 60% of those trained to teach take teaching jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30%- 50% percent of new teachers leave the profession within the first five years </li></ul></ul>Left Behind in America, 2007
  10. 10. Future supply of High School Graduates (Andreas Schleicher, OECD, 2007)
  11. 11. Future supply of College Graduates (Andreas Schleicher,OECD, 2007)
  12. 12. How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US) (Levy and Murnane, 2004) Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution
  13. 13. Expert thinking and problem solving involves effective pattern matching based on detailed knowledge. The set of skills used by the stumped expert to decide when to give up on one strategy and what to try next. Complex communication requires the exchange of vast amounts of verbal and nonverbal information. The information flow is constantly adjusted as the communication evolves unpredictably. Levy & Murnane, 2004 Valued Performances for Now & the Near Future
  14. 14. Having Our Say: Middle Grade Student Perceptions of School, Technologies, and Academic Engagement <ul><li>Results from a study conducted with 4,000 NC middle grade students </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrate an increased passion for & reliance on technologies for entertainment & </li></ul><ul><li>communication. </li></ul><ul><li>In many cases, out of school technology use had “lapped” in school technology use, even in rural and underserved schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Students demonstrated a sophisticated knowledge about what they want to do in school and what activities interested them. </li></ul>Spires, Lee, Turner, & Johnson, 2008
  15. 15. Having Our Say: US & Chinese Teacher’s Perceptions <ul><li>Benefits of Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that computers could support student-centered learning </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that computers could enhance student creativity and imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that students could learn problem solving more effectively with computers </li></ul><ul><li>Hindrances to Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Reported having useful sites blocked </li></ul><ul><li>Reported lack of connectivity </li></ul><ul><li>Reported a lack of technology support </li></ul>Spires, Morris & Zhang 2008 Chinese teachers assigned higher value to creativity and innovation in contrast to US teachers .
  16. 16. <ul><li> Web 2.0 Literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Access content </li></ul><ul><li>Create content </li></ul><ul><li>Mash-up content </li></ul><ul><li>Publish content </li></ul>
  17. 17. In addition to being skilled with print text . . . <ul><li>The “literate” person today needs to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn about Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn with Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn through Technology </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><ul><li>How can new literacies help us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think, learn, & work in innovative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ways? </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmatasic/3473067292/sizes/m/
  19. 19. Have you read?
  20. 20. EDUTOPIA: A Digital Odyssey <ul><li>To view video visit edutopia.org </li></ul>
  21. 21. Partnership for 21 st Century Skills Framework http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/route21/
  22. 22. Partnership for 21 st Century Skills <ul><li>Learning and Innovation Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity and Innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Critical Thinking and Problem Solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication and Collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information, Media, and Technology Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ICT Literacy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Life and Career Skills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flexibility and Adaptability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative and Self-Direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social and Cross-Cultural Skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Productivity and Accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership and Responsibility </li></ul></ul>http://www.21stcenturyskills.org/route21
  23. 23. Four Skill Areas to Develop With Your Students <ul><ul><li>Online Reading Comprehension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video and Multimedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 and Social Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educational Games </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Access to information We live in an age of exploding access to information — “a tsunami of data.” Richard Saul Wurman
  25. 25. Online Reading (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004) Understanding – Students know when information makes sense. Relevancy – Students know when information meets their needs. Accuracy – Students know how to verify information with another source. Reliability - Students know how to tell when information can be trusted. Bias – Students know that everyone “shapes” information and how to evaluate this. Stance – Students are “healthy skeptics” about online information.
  26. 26. Creative Synthesis -- A 21st Century Skill Diagram by Jon Rowe
  27. 27. <ul><li>Grassroots Video/Multimedia </li></ul><ul><li>Using media to engage students in creating and learning content. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex thinking and the “YouTube Aesthetic” don’t have to be mutually exclusive. </li></ul><ul><li>Get a Flip camera! </li></ul>
  28. 28. Inquiry Learning Project (ILP) Kits Spires, Hervey & Watson, 2009
  29. 29. Daniel Pink’s Six Senses (2005) <ul><li>Design - not only function </li></ul><ul><li>Story – not only argument </li></ul><ul><li>Symphony – not only focus </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy – not only logic </li></ul><ul><li>Play-not only seriousness </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning-not only accumulation </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Think left and think right and think low and think high.  Oh, the thinks you can think up if only you try!&quot; Dr. Seuss </li></ul>
  30. 30. Web 2.0 and Social Networking <ul><li>Henry Jenkins et al. (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>New media literacies that evolved through collaboration and social networking in a rich media environment (participatory culture) </li></ul><ul><li>Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture </li></ul>
  31. 31. Henry Jenkins (2006) 21 st Century Media Literacies Framework 21st Centuries Literacies Framework Play Capacity to experiment with one’s surroundings as a form of problem-solving Performance Ability to adopt alternative identities for improvisation and discovery Simulation Ability to interpret and construct dynamic models of real-world processes Appropriation Ability to meaningfully sample and remix media content Multitasking Ability to scan one’s environment and shift focus as needed to salient details Distributed Cognition Ability to interact meaningfully with tolls that expand mental capacities Collective Intelligence Ability to pool knowledge & compare notes with others toward a common goal Judgment Ability to evaluate the reliability & credibility of different information sources Transmedia Navigation Ability to follow the flow of stories and information across multiple modalities Networking Ability to search for, synthesize, and disseminate information Negotiation Ability to travel across diverse communities, discerning and respecting multiple perspectives, and grasping and following alternative norms.
  32. 32. Games Galore! <ul><li>Game playing is universal--almost all 12-17 year olds play games. </li></ul><ul><li>Game playing is social. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost a third of teens play games that are listed as appropriate only for people older than they are. </li></ul><ul><li>Pew Internet & American Life Project (2008) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Marc Prensky <ul><li>ENGAGE ME or ENRAGE ME </li></ul><ul><li>What Today’s Learners Demand </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rather than being empowered to choose what they want and to see what interests them and to create their own personalized identity – as they are in the rest of their lives – in school, they must eat what they are served.” </li></ul><ul><li>“ School didn’t teach me to read – I learned to read from my games.” --A Student </li></ul>
  34. 34. Games and 21st Century Learning <ul><li>American Federation of Scientists (2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Game players are able to: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapidly analyze new situations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interact with characters they don’t really know </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solve problems quickly and independently </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Think strategically in a chaotic world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborate effectively in teams </li></ul></ul></ul>Becker & Wade, 2004
  35. 35. Society continuously adapts to innovation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWaQz1HONog
  36. 36. Writing “will create forgetfulness in men’s souls because they will not use their memories; they will trust to the external written characters and not remember of themselves.” Readers will become “hearers of many things and will have learned nothing . . . Plato’s Phaedrus Writing as innovation http://www.flickr.com/photos/killlies/3975279714 /
  37. 37. / <ul><li>PISA data </li></ul>Encyclopedia as Innovation Accessing information at home
  38. 38. Innovation Scale up Took over 50 years for the electrification of America http://www.flickr.com/photos/bunaen/125338110/
  39. 40. Famous Last Words . . . <ul><li>“ Who in their right mind would ever need more than 640k of ram!?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bill Gates, 1981 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ I think there is a world market for maybe five computers.” </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Watson, Chair, IBM, 1943 </li></ul><ul><li>“ Telephone has too many shortcomings to be seriously considered a means of communication.” </li></ul><ul><li>Western Union memo, 1876 </li></ul>
  40. 41. <ul><ul><li>How will you contribute to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>world of new literacies? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and to your students’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> digital future? </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmatasic/3473067292/sizes/m
  41. 42. New Learning Ecology Spires, Wiebe, Hollebrands, Young, & Lee, 2009)
  42. 43. 5 Suggestions for 21 st Century Teachers <ul><li>Invent your TPACK </li></ul><ul><li>Design project-based inquiries </li></ul><ul><li>Hone the new global skill set </li></ul><ul><li>Become an expert in performance-based assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Create an identity in professional learning communities and networks </li></ul><ul><li>. . . INNOVATE. . . . INNOVATE. . . INNOVATE . . . </li></ul>
  43. 44. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra, & Koehler, 2006 Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge Context Pedagogical Content Knowledge Technological Pedagogical Knowledge Technological Content Knowledge
  44. 45. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra, & Koehler, 2006 Context Technological Knowledge (TK)
  45. 46. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
  46. 47. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Content Knowledge (CN)
  47. 48. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Technological Pedagogical Knowledge Technological Knowledge (TK) Pedagogical Knowledge (PK)
  48. 49. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Technological Content Knowledge Technological Knowledge (TK) Content Knowledge (CN)
  49. 50. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context Pedagogical Content Knowledge Pedagogical Knowledge (PK) Content Knowledge (CN)
  50. 51. Got TPACK? Mishra & Koehler, 2006 Context TPACK
  51. 52. http://www.flickr.com/photos/heroethic/3269587097/ INQUIRY
  52. 53. Project-Based Inquiry Spires, H., Wiebe, E., Young, C., Hollenbrands, K., and Lee, J. (2009) .
  53. 54. Bloom’s Taxonomy <ul><li>Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Application </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Creating </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluating </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzing </li></ul><ul><li>Applying </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Remembering </li></ul>Anderson & Krathwol, (2001)
  54. 55. Any Value in Inverting Revised Bloom’s Taxonomy? Anderson & Krathwol, (2001)
  55. 56. Create <ul><li>The learner creates new ideas and information: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Imagine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Devise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forecast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innovate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Anderson & Krathwol, (2001)
  56. 57. Global Skills Set A New Global Skill Set
  57. 58. Performance-Based Assessment
  58. 59. Professional Learning Communities Professional Learning Communities & Networks http://www.networkweaving.com/blog/uploaded_images/Mayors-750304.gif
  59. 60. New Literacies & Global Leaning <ul><li>Project-Based Inquiry Master’s Program at NCSU: </li></ul><ul><li>http://cednlgl.wikispaces.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>New Literacies Collaborative: </li></ul><ul><li>www.newlit.org </li></ul><ul><li>Hiller’s wiki with resources: </li></ul><ul><li>http://eci546.wikispaces.com/ </li></ul>
  60. 61. <ul><ul><li>What does it mean to be literate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>today? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can new literacies help us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>think, learn, & work in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovative </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ways? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How will you contribute to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>world of new literacies? </li></ul></ul>http://www.flickr.com/photos/mmatasic/3473067292/sizes/m/
  61. 62. Educational Challenges?? The future is already here – it's just not evenly distributed. William Gibson http://www.thevarguy.com/wp-content/uploads/2008/07/innovations.jpg
  62. 63. The Last Word <ul><li>“ This is the moment—this is the most important moment right now. We are about making a contribution. That’s what our job is. It’s about contributing something.” Benjamin Zander </li></ul><ul><li>How will you contribute to the world of new literacies, to your students’ digital future? </li></ul>
  63. 64. Thank you! Let me hear from you. [email_address] http://static.desktopnexus.com/wallpapers/27127-bigthumbnail.jpg
  64. 65. References
  65. 66. References
  66. 67. References <ul><li>Spires, H., Lee, J., Turner, K., & Johnson, J. (2008) . Having our say: Middle grades students' perspectives on school, technologies, and academic engagement. Journal of Research in Technology in Education. 40 (4), 497-515. </li></ul><ul><li>Spires, H., Wiebe, E., Young, C., Hollebrands, K. & Lee, J. (2009). Toward a New Learning Ecology: Teaching and Learning in 1:1 Environments. Friday Institute White Paper Series. NC State University: Raleigh, NC. http://fi.ncsu.edu/podcast/white-paper-series/2009/04/22/toward-a-new-learning-ecology/ </li></ul><ul><li>Spires, H. , Morris, G., & Zhang, J. (2008). New Literacies and emerging technologies: Perspectives from middle grade teachers in the US and China. Paper presented at AERA, New York, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Spires, H., Hervey, L. & Watson, T. (in press). Scaffolding the TPACK Framework in Reading and Language Arts: New Literacies, New Minds. Research in English Language Arts and Technology. </li></ul>
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