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Defining Purposes for Using Web 2.0 Tools


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This presentation to the 2009 Minnesota Council of Teachers of English argues that learning Web 2.0 tools requires an understanding of the purposes for using these tools.

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Defining Purposes for Using Web 2.0 Tools

  1. 1. Defining Purposes for Using Web 2.0 Digital Tools Presentation at the 2009 Minnesota Council of Teachers of English conference, Rochester, MN Richard Beach University of Minnesota
  2. 2. Kathy Yancey: 21st Century Writing <ul><li>This 21st century writing marks the beginning of a new era in literacy, a period we might call the Age of Composition, a period where composers become composers not through direct and formal instruction alone (if at all), but rather through what we might call an extracurricular social co-apprenticeship. </li></ul>
  3. 3. 30,000 students: Facebook site: <ul><li>Students write “THIS IS SPARTA” on AP tests and cross it out </li></ul><ul><li>Extra points: “THIS IS MADNESS” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ As the country slid deeper into the Depression, it became clear that drastic change was needed in order to save the American banking system. Fortunately,Franklin Delano Roosevelt, after taking office, immediately declared THIS IS MADNESS and established a four-day banking holiday.” </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Jeff Uteckt: Literacy Curriculum Models
  5. 5. NCTE: Twenty-first century readers and writers need to: <ul><li>Develop proficiency with the tools of technology </li></ul><ul><li>Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems collaboratively and cross-culturally </li></ul><ul><li>Design and share information for global communities to meet a variety of purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Manage, analyze, and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information </li></ul><ul><li>Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multimedia texts </li></ul><ul><li>Attend to the ethical responsibilities required by these complex environments </li></ul>
  6. 6. NCTE Poll: 900 language arts teachers <ul><li>Top three abilities for student success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>seek information and make critical judgments about the veracity of sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>read and interpret many different kinds of texts, both in print and online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>innovate and apply knowledge creatively </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. NCTE Poll: 900 language arts teachers <ul><li>62% reject notion that basic language, reading, and writing skills must be mastered before critical 21st century literacy abilities can be cultivated </li></ul>
  8. 8. Teachers: Student writing <ul><li>3%: students spend at least an hour a week in school writing in an online social network environment. </li></ul><ul><li>52 percent said that their students spend at least an hour a week outside of school writing in such environments. </li></ul><ul><li>17% of teens enjoyed school writing “a great deal.” </li></ul><ul><li>49% said that they enjoyed non-school writing </li></ul><ul><li>“ a great deal.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Teaching tools versus uses of tools to achieve purposes <ul><li>Typewriting </li></ul><ul><li>Handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Blogging </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasting </li></ul><ul><li>Digital video </li></ul>
  10. 10. Purposes for uses of tools <ul><li>Tools </li></ul><ul><li>User Purpose/outcome </li></ul>
  11. 11. Students: OTX study: Social purposes <ul><li>Most popular: hanging out with friends, listening to music, and seeing boy/girlfriends </li></ul><ul><li>48 digital communications a day </li></ul><ul><li>“ They are only interested in technology as a means to an end. The traditional world remains the go-to destination for meeting their friends and entertainment and real, offline destinations and pastimes still rate higher than the online space.” </li></ul><ul><li>Only 16%: written on a blog </li></ul><ul><li>Only 21%: uploaded a clip to YouTube </li></ul>
  12. 12. Web 2.0 tools: Affordances <ul><li>Interactivity: both read and write </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students as consumers and producers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Multimodality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combine images, video, music, text </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperlinked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Connected texts </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Purposes: teacher vs. student initiated <ul><li>Phase I: Write an essay for the teacher on a blog </li></ul><ul><li>Phase II: Write an essay for teacher and peers on a blog </li></ul><ul><li>Phase III: Self-initiated writing using classroom tools </li></ul><ul><li>Phase IV: Self-initiated writing using tools outside of the classroom </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mega-academic purpose: Engaging students <ul><li>What activities are most engaging for your students? </li></ul><ul><li>Display competence to peers </li></ul><ul><li>Imagine/create alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance sense of agency </li></ul><ul><li>Build social relationships </li></ul>
  15. 15. Fostering fluency: Just getting them to write <ul><li>Writing for authentic audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Sharing online writing: </li></ul><ul><li>Destinations : Where do you want to go? Why do you want to go there? </li></ul>
  16. 16. Acquiring/subscribing to information <ul><li>RSS feeds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>subscribing to Bloglines, Google Reader </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bookmarking and sharing links </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diigo or Delicious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information/search literacies </li></ul>
  17. 17. Accessing online literary texts <ul><li>Literary Archives </li></ul><ul><li>Lit2Go </li></ul><ul><li>PBS Online Video </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  18. 18. Gathering information <ul><li>online surveys/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>SurveyMonkey </li></ul></ul><ul><li>digital note-taking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evernote </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. digital mind-mapping --> defining topics/connections <ul><li>Inspiration,, Curio 2.4, VUE, IHMC CmapTools, Spark-Space (3-D maps), Compendium, Gliffy, Visual Mind, Mind Genenius, Freemind, OpenMind, Kdissert, VYM (View Your Mind) </li></ul>
  20. 21. Purposes for using blogs and wikis <ul><li>Blogs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual expression of ideas/personal accounts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinking of texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comments from peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimodal writing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative writing of reports/essays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shared revision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyperlinking of texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimodal writing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Blogs: Individual vs. classroom? <ul><li>Individual: Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom: Community sharing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rachel Tholen , Edina High School </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Blogging: Paul Allison: questions to students: <ul><li>What are you passionate about and how do these interests fit with other students’ big questions? </li></ul><ul><li>What voices or sources of information do you think are important to include in your search for answers? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you become an effective online networker and get people with shared interests to value your voice online? </li></ul><ul><li>How can you use our social networks as personallearning sites that lead to social action? (p. 110) . </li></ul>
  23. 24. Google Docs --> Collaboration texts <ul><li>Compose texts offline—while not being connected to the web—using Google Gears </li></ul>
  24. 25. Wikis --> collaboration <ul><li>PBwiki, WikiSpaces, JotSpot, wetpaint </li></ul><ul><li>Organize projects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Katie Bruhn: World literature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikibooks: First year college students, St. Cloud State University: Rhetoric and Composition Wikibook </li></ul><ul><li>Create/edit Wikipedia entries </li></ul>
  25. 26. Wikibooks: constructivist learning <ul><li>Invite an activist versus passive stance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can add to or improve this text” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I can participate in constructing knowledge about media” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foster collaborative sharing of ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires negotiation of competing perspectives in constructing knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  26. 30. Texting <ul><li>Talk about code-switching </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in audience and purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Translate texting text into prose </li></ul><ul><li>Lingo2Word </li></ul><ul><li>Hope that you are doing well today. I will see you later. </li></ul><ul><li>Hope dat ur doiN wel 2day. Ill CU l8r. </li></ul>
  27. 31. Sharing Online <ul><li>Youth Voices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students from different schools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moodle/Ning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forums, sharing notes, posting links </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My digital writing Ning (closed) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 32. Twitter <ul><li>Create a classroom twitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited to students in the class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Share notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project onto screen </li></ul></ul>
  29. 33. Virtual Literacy Worlds <ul><li>Literary Worlds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>enter into and chat about novels such as Brave New World, Of Mice and Men, The Great Gatsby, and 1984 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create MySpace or Facebook profiles for literary characters and have them friend each other </li></ul><ul><li>Explore narrative development in Minnesota Stories daily videos </li></ul>
  30. 35. Multimodal communication: visual design and rhetoric <ul><li>Copyright and fair use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Code of Best Practices in Fair Use for Media Literacy Education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Remixing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adbusters, Remix America, Photoshopping, music video, FanFiction . net </li></ul></ul>
  31. 40. VoiceThread <ul><li>Audio and text commentaries of slideshows </li></ul><ul><li>Place-based writing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Images foster use of the descriptive details </li></ul></ul><ul><li>John Wood : Roosevelt HS: Hale Neighborhood </li></ul>
  32. 41. Digital Storytelling/literature/poetry <ul><li>DUSTY (Digital Underground Storytelling For Youth) </li></ul><ul><li>Association Digital Literature </li></ul>
  33. 43. Digital comics <ul><li>Comic Life/Bitstrips </li></ul><ul><li>Brent Eckoff, West Jr. High: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ I had students to a rough storyboard of what they planned to create. Some of the speech bubbles and text boxes they wrote were both surprising, and innovative. The students then exported the Comic Life presentations as quicktime files, uploaded them to YouTube, and then embedded them on the class wiki.” </li></ul></ul>
  34. 45. Podcasting Tutorials <ul><li>Finding podcasts to use in education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>iTunes, Podcast Alley, Juice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers Teaching Teachers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Women of Web 2.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Recording and editing podcasts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Garageband </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skype </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audio Hyjack Pro </li></ul></ul>
  35. 46. Conducting interviews using Skype
  36. 47. Creating an online role-play: Students: <ul><ul><li>Select an issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulate a primary argument </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose roles and conduct research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post arguments on a blog or online forum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step out of roles and reflect </li></ul></ul>
  37. 48. Through online role-play, students learn to: <ul><ul><li>construct a persona </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>employ rhetorical appeal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>identify and refute counter-arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>revise or modify one’s own positions </li></ul></ul>
  38. 49. Using a Class Blog: &quot;Fighting Sioux&quot; mascot debate
  39. 50. Issue: Internet policies <ul><li>Blocking of websites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NRA site blocked </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administrators accessing Facebook </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determining if students are drinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Violation of the state’s athletic code </li></ul></ul>
  40. 51. Read Cory Doctorow’s Little Brother <ul><li>17-year-old Marcus, a computer hacker, takes on the Department of Homeland Security’s attempt to control society </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of Internet privacy/control </li></ul>
  41. 52.   Ning: Blocking “educational” sites/administrator snooping
  42. 53. Ethos: EmoGirl: Critique of school Internet policies <ul><li>I think the internet usage policies are ridiculous. The policies are almost impossible to find. I spent half an hour trying to find them and I'm a young, computer savvy person.  </li></ul>
  43. 54. “ Strict Father” cultural model: Charles Hammerstein <ul><li>The issue with sites like YouTube is that it is a helpful site when used correctly, but the ratio of students who would use it to the students who would abuse it would greatly favor the later of the two. R-rated sites are not ok because they usually contain information and content that may be considered offensive . T he internet policies are very clear, if your grandmother would not appreciate it, then you probably shouldn't be doing those kind of things at school. </li></ul>
  44. 55. mapping to identify roles and relationships between roles
  45. 56. Students reflect on: <ul><ul><li>Use of arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort in role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Targeted audiences/alliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who has power? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons: strategies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of potential change </li></ul></ul>
  46. 57. Students reflected on the role-play: <ul><ul><li>I think it was a valuable learning experience because we actually got to argue back and forth with other people.  If this had just been a writing assignment, it would have only been one-sided.  You can use persuasive arguments in a paper but you can’t have a back and forth conversation on it.  I really felt like it helped me get into someone else’s shoes and think like someone different from myself.   </li></ul></ul>
  47. 58. Change-based assessment: Determining effectiveness <ul><li>Assess students on their use writing to attempt to affect change in actual audiences’ beliefs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Framing of the status quo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their own and others’ beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Their sense of agency to make change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Need for objective criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem: teacher’s own preferred changes </li></ul></ul>
  48. 59. Students wrote a paper from their own point of view <ul><li>Addressing status quo problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons for problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Proposing solutions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons solutions will work </li></ul></ul>
  49. 60. Self-reflection: Achieving purposes <ul><li>Learning stories/artist statements: video production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent does the completed work fulfill your artistic intent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What are its strengths and weaknesses? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did feedback affect the development of the work? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give at least two examples of technical problems you encountered and explain how they were resolved in the creation of the piece. </li></ul></ul>
  50. 67. Self-reflection: Purposes in video production <ul><li>Ana: in a “stop-and-go” way: play, pause, move, repeat. We also thought there could be a shot where the camera follows the lockers like a path. So the camera tilts a little to show there’s many lockers and she runs by all of them. But there is a moment where, there is a door in between the blockers, and we put Kenzie there to make it scary. </li></ul>
  51. 68. VideoAnt: feedback to videos
  52. 69. Podcasts: Online professional development <ul><li>Teachers Teaching Teachers </li></ul><ul><li>EdTechWeekly </li></ul><ul><li>Women of Web 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Campus </li></ul><ul><li>The K12 Online Conference </li></ul>
  53. 70. Websites <ul><li>Digital Writing: </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching media: and </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching literature: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  54. 71. Teaching Writing Using Blogs, Wikis, and other Digital Tools , Richard Beach, Chris Anson, Lee-Ann Kastman-Breuch, and Thom Swiss