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  1. 1. What’s in a Name? Digital Natives, Millennials, Net Generation Marilyn Puchalski Engagement Institute Spring 2007
  2. 2. About Whom Are We Speaking? <ul><li>Born between 1982 and 2002 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generation Y </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Digital Natives (Marc Prensky) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Net Generation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Millennials (William Strauss & Neil Howe) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Marc Prensky’s Take <ul><li>Digital Natives </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technologically fluent </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Immigrants </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TSL – technology as a second language </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speak with a “digital accent” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Prensky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>uses these terms to describe the disconnect between today’s learners and today’s teachers/parents </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Digital Natives … <ul><li>Rapid access to information from multiple sources </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-tasking </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-media over text </li></ul><ul><li>Random access to information </li></ul><ul><li>Networked interactions with multiple people </li></ul><ul><li>Just-in-time learning </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Relevant, useful, fun learning </li></ul>
  5. 5. Digital Immigrants … <ul><li>Controlled information access, limited sources </li></ul><ul><li>Doing one thing at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Text </li></ul><ul><li>Sequential information processing </li></ul><ul><li>Independent work </li></ul><ul><li>Deferred rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Serious learners </li></ul>
  6. 6. How do Natives use technology? <ul><li>Communication (cell/email/IM) </li></ul><ul><li>Social Life (MySpace/IM) </li></ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul><ul><li>Productivity Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing life (calendars/PDAs) </li></ul><ul><li>Shopping </li></ul>
  7. 7. Quiz… <ul><li>Do you check email at least 3X a day? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you Google for information at least 5X a day? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you use your mobile phone for more than one thing? </li></ul><ul><li>Have you turned over remembering to a technology device? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you shop online more than the mall? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you have a wireless network at home? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you “text” instead of calling? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you IM? </li></ul>
  8. 8. Today’s Learners… are about access and interaction … anytime, anyplace.
  9. 9. Informal Learning Important <ul><li>Learning ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility make this possible </li></ul><ul><li>Social networking </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
  10. 10. What do Natives Expect? <ul><li>Mobility (wireless, power) </li></ul><ul><li>Self help </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Online answers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FAQs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google </li></ul></ul><ul><li>24/7 services (tutorials, library, payments, tech support) </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate online </li></ul><ul><li>Use technology for learning (LMS,PPT, etc.) </li></ul>
  11. 11. What do Natives like? <ul><li>Creativity – give them opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia formats </li></ul><ul><li>Varied class activities (short segments) </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with materials </li></ul><ul><li>Engagement with the world </li></ul><ul><li>Self help </li></ul><ul><li>Immediacy </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul>
  12. 12. What do Natives need? <ul><li>Interaction with real people F2F </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty – low stakes, one-on-one conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Instruction about IL </li></ul><ul><li>Warnings about MySpace, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Crash course in application software </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Millennial Generation: Blessing or Curse in the Classroom Terri M. Manning, EdD Director, Center for Applied Research Central Piedmont Community College
  14. 14. The Millennial Childhood <ul><li>The most monumental financial boom in history. </li></ul><ul><li>Steady income growth through the 1990’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Still great disparity between races. </li></ul><ul><li>Saw their parents lose all their stocks and mutual funds (college funds) during the early 2000’s. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Demographic Trends <ul><li>Smaller families: Only children will comprise about 10% of the population. </li></ul><ul><li>More parental education: 1 in 4 has at least one parent with a college degree. </li></ul><ul><li>Kids born in the late ‘90s are the first in American history whose mothers are better educated than their fathers by a small margin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Major Influencing Factors <ul><li>Their parents </li></ul><ul><li>The self-esteem movement </li></ul><ul><li>The customer service movement </li></ul><ul><li>Gaming and technology </li></ul><ul><li>Casual communication </li></ul>
  17. 17. Parenting Millennials <ul><li>This generation is being parented by well-educated, over-involved adults who participate in “deliberate parenting.” They have outcomes in mind. </li></ul><ul><li>Boomers were the first generation to be thrown out in to an unsafe world as adolescents. </li></ul><ul><li>The 60’s and 70’s were very scary and many of us felt unprepared for it. </li></ul><ul><li>We were naïve and didn’t have enough tools in our tool box to deal with it. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Baby Boomers as Parents <ul><li>Boomers rebelled against the parenting practices of their parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Strict discipline was the order of the day for boomers. </li></ul><ul><li>They made conscious decisions not to say “because I told you so” or “because I’m the parent and you’re the child.” </li></ul><ul><li>Boomers became more “friendly” with their children. They wanted to have open lines of communication and a relationship with them. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Baby Boomers as Parents <ul><li>They explained things to their children, (actions, consequences, options, etc.) – they wanted them to learn to make informed decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>They allowed their children to have input into family decisions, educational options and discipline issues. </li></ul><ul><li>We told them “just because it is on television doesn’t mean it’s true” or “you can’t believe everything you read.” </li></ul><ul><li>We wanted them to question authority. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Result <ul><li>Millennials have become “a master set of negotiators” who are capable of rational thought and decision-making skills at young ages. </li></ul><ul><li>They will negotiate with anyone including their parents, teachers and school administrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Some call this “arguing.” </li></ul>
  21. 21. Helicopter Parents <ul><li>Helicopter Parent ( n) A parent who hovers over his or her children. </li></ul><ul><li>Or Snowplow parent : Parents who clear the way for their children </li></ul><ul><li>…… these (echo) boomers are confident, achievement-oriented and used to hovering &quot;helicopter&quot; parents keeping tabs on their every move. (Anthony DeBarros, &quot;New baby boom swamps colleges,&quot; USA Today , January 2, 2003) </li></ul>
  22. 22. Baby Boomer Parents have been their Biggest Cheerleaders <ul><li>Millennials expect and need praise. </li></ul><ul><li>Will mistake silence for disapproval. </li></ul><ul><li>Millennials expect feedback. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Focus on Self-esteem <ul><li>This generation was the center of the “self-esteem” movement. </li></ul><ul><li>9,068 books were written about self-esteem and children during the 80s and 90s (there were 485 in the 70s). </li></ul>
  24. 24. Focus on Self-esteem <ul><li>The state of California spent millions studying the construct and published a document entitled “Toward a State of Self-esteem.” </li></ul><ul><li>Yet they can’t escape the angst of adolescence – they still feel disconnected, question their existence, purpose and the meaning of life. They want to feel valued and cared about. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Focus on Customer Service <ul><li>Expect access (24/7) </li></ul><ul><li>Expect things to work like they are supposed to </li></ul><ul><li>If they don’t “that is your problem” </li></ul><ul><li>They want what they have paid for </li></ul><ul><li>Everything comes with a toll-free number or web address </li></ul><ul><li>Want a “system restore” option in classes </li></ul>
  26. 26. Add the Impact of Gaming <ul><li>Gaming has impacted children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The game endings changed based on the decisions children made (Role Playing Games) impacting locus of control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves a complex set of decision- making skills. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaches them to take multiple pieces of data and make decisions quickly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning more closely resembles Nintendo, a trial and error approach to solving problems. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. We navigated our way through…..
  28. 28. They navigated their way through…..
  29. 29. Technology <ul><li>This generation has been plugged in since they were babies. </li></ul><ul><li>They grew up with educational software and computer games. </li></ul><ul><li>They think technology should be free. </li></ul><ul><li>They want and expect services 24/7. </li></ul><ul><li>They do not live in an 8–5 world. </li></ul><ul><li>They function in an international world. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Millennials Want to Learn <ul><li>With technology </li></ul><ul><li>With each other </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><li>In their time </li></ul><ul><li>In their place </li></ul><ul><li>Doing things that matter (most important) </li></ul>Source: Achievement and the 21 st Century Learner.
  31. 31. By age 21….. <ul><li>It is estimated that the average child will have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent 10,000 hours playing video games </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sent 200,000 emails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent 20,000 hours watching TV </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent 10,000 hours on their cell phone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spent under 5,000 hours reading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But these are issues of income. Will a child who grows up in a low income household have these same experiences? </li></ul>Source: Educause
  32. 32. What About 1st Generation Students? <ul><li>Not all students will be proficient; first-generation and students from working class families may have less experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Their experience with technology has been in arcades and minimally in school (poorer districts.) </li></ul><ul><li>They have not had the exposure to educational uses of technology. </li></ul>
  33. 33. What About 1st Generation Students? <ul><li>We need another placement test – remedial keyboarding and technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Huge digital divide between the “haves” and the “have nots” based on income levels (class). </li></ul><ul><li>Digital divide is appearing in pre-K. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The “Information Age” Mindset <ul><li>Students have never known life without the computer. It is an assumed part of life. </li></ul><ul><li>The Internet is a source of research, interactivity, and socializing (they prefer it over TV). </li></ul><ul><li>Doing is more important than knowing. </li></ul><ul><li>There is zero tolerance for delays. </li></ul><ul><li>The infrastructure and the lecture tradition of colleges may not meet the expectations of students raised on the Internet and interactive games. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Cell Phone Technology <ul><li>They all have cell phones and expect to be in contact 24/7. </li></ul><ul><li>Not a phone – a lifestyle management tool </li></ul><ul><li>Staying “connected” is essential. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication is a safety issue for parents. </li></ul><ul><li>Communication has become casual for students (IM, email and cell phones. </li></ul><ul><li>How has this changed how they interact with faculty? </li></ul>
  36. 36. Issues for Schools, Colleges and Universities in an Information Age <ul><li>Plagiarism (consumer/creator blurring) </li></ul><ul><li>Cheating (must define it) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell Phone Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Typing vs. Handwriting </li></ul><ul><li>Use of paper mills </li></ul>From: The Information Age Mindset: Changes in Students and Implications for Higher Education. By Jason L. Frand. Educause. Sep/Oct 2000.
  37. 37. Attitudes …….. Source: Educause TV Generation “ Boomers” PC Generation “ Gen X” Net Generation “ Millennials” Web What is it? Web is a tool Web is oxygen Community Personal Extended Personal Virtual Perspective Local Multi-national Global Career One career Multiple careers Multiple reinventions Loyalty Corporation Self Soul Authority Hierarchy Unimpressed Self as expert
  38. 38. 2004 Research Study <ul><li>Central Piedmont Community College’s Center for Applied Research was contracted to do this study by the Workforce Development Board. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data collected January–March 2004 from the University of NC at Charlotte, Central Piedmont Community College and Johnson C. Smith University. </li></ul></ul>Funded By:
  39. 39. Some Major Themes From the Study <ul><li>They like teachers who pay attention to their needs, schedules and interests. </li></ul><ul><li>They like working in teams but are not given a lot of opportunity to do so. </li></ul><ul><li>Their job expectations immediately out of college are not as high as previous generations (65% expect to earn 40K or less). </li></ul><ul><li>They want to do meaningful work (more important than money) </li></ul>
  40. 40. Some Major Themes <ul><li>They expect to have 4–6 jobs in their lifetime. </li></ul><ul><li>They expect to someday acquire the lifestyle they grew up with. </li></ul><ul><li>They expect to have a 2-income family. </li></ul><ul><li>Security and time for family are the two most important quality of life variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Think their parents did a great job and don’t think their generation can improve family life over how their parents raised them. </li></ul>
  41. 41. How They Will Push Us… <ul><li>More independence in the workforce </li></ul><ul><li>Consumer-based fairness </li></ul><ul><li>Better technology </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced professional development </li></ul><ul><li>Get rid of “that’s the way we’ve always done it” </li></ul><ul><li>Have more life balance </li></ul><ul><li>Re-establish priorities </li></ul>
  42. 42. So How Do We Work With Them? <ul><li>Because they have grown up in a different world, never assume that they know certain things like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t want to talk to their mother when they are having problems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t get points for showing up or an A for effort. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The definition of plagiarism and cheating. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. So How Do We Work With Them? <ul><ul><li>It’s not appropriate to call the professor at home after 9pm. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can’t use IM language in papers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s not okay to email the professor 10 times a day. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That when they email you at 3am, you’re not sitting on the other end waiting to respond to them. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The business office (and most others) close at 5pm. </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. What Should Institutions Do? <ul><li>Develop policies and practices around appropriate communication (by department). </li></ul><ul><li>Give them access to as much as is philosophically possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Draw a line on negotiations. </li></ul><ul><li>Stop existing in an 8-5 world. </li></ul><ul><li>Look into what is known about learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Try to actively engage them. </li></ul><ul><li>Create alterative ways for the low-tech students to come up to speed. </li></ul>
  45. 45. What does this mean for engagement? How are we defining engagement?
  46. 46. Pascarella and Terenzini… <ul><li>Characteristics of learning and development (6 Touchstones) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encounter challenging ideas/people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage those challenges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires supportive environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Involves real-world activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is a social activity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is not limited by time or space </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Rules of Engagement <ul><li>Capture their attention </li></ul><ul><li>Convince them to care (WIIFM) </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate them to own their learning </li></ul><ul><li>Provide them with choices </li></ul><ul><li>Connect them to each other and to you </li></ul><ul><li>Induce them to participate </li></ul><ul><li>Make it an experience to remember </li></ul>Ellen D. Wagner, Adobe, Inc.
  48. 48. BCCC and Engagement <ul><li>What are we doing well? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need to improve? </li></ul><ul><li>What do we need to move forward? </li></ul>
  49. 49. Resources <ul><li>Marc Prensky </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Millennials Rising </li></ul><ul><li>Educause Learning Initiative </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ECAR Key Findings </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>