Pondering the Digital Divide - World View 2013

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  • 2010: 1.74 billion users world-wide
  • The 50x15 InitiativeThe Digital Divide can and should be made smaller. This idea has found eco in many private and public organizations. One of the organizations that has taken an active and leading role in this effort is the 50x15 Foundation, initiative that consists of support to empower 50 percent of the world’s population with Internet access by year 2015. Learning Labs from the 50x15 Initiative are already present in Brazil, China, the Caribbean, and in Africa (Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda) and many more are in the planning stage.
  • The 50x15 InitiativeThe Digital Divide can and should be made smaller. This idea has found eco in many private and public organizations. One of the organizations that has taken an active and leading role in this effort is the 50x15 Foundation, initiative that consists of support to empower 50 percent of the world’s population with Internet access by year 2015. Learning Labs from the 50x15 Initiative are already present in Brazil, China, the Caribbean, and in Africa (Egypt, Ghana, Kenya, Lesotho, Mali, Mauritius, Rwanda, South Africa, Uganda) and many more are in the planning stage.
  • The lack of public-private partnership reportedly is one reason for the continual divide in Russia.
  • In China, three primary digital divide challenges are; Access, Skills, and Content.The government pays a lot of attention to Access and Skills but not Content.
  • German government has abandoned digital inclusion efforts and considers it a market choice.
  • “The most important challenge is to train local people and educate them, not only to be users but also citizens who can produce content and knowledge and understand how to use it in an entrepreneurial way to generate opportunities.” –Baggio – founder and president of Center for Digital Inclusion in Brazil.
  • 1st Digital Divide : Much of the related dialogue, and certainly most of the action by governments in developing countries, has so far treated unequal access to ICTs (especially the Internet) as a largely technical challenge at the core of digital divide initiatives, and as a result technical solutions have been explored and implemented (usually led by very technical people) all over the world. At a practical level, the responsibility for bridging the first digital divide in the education sector, especially in developing countries, was (has been) delegated to the 'ICT people'.
  • Hargittai (n.d.).
  • A total of 12% teachers fully integrated digital tools and resources in a learner-centered approach (levels 4b – 6), placing an emphasis on student action and higher-level thinking. None of the teachers reached the level of Refinement (level 6), an entirely learner-centered technology approach where disconnects no longer exist between instruction and technology in the classroom.
  • Pondering the Digital Divide - World View 2013

    1. 1. Pondering the Digital Divide Hiller A. Spires, Ph.D. Professor & Senior Research Fellow North Carolina State University November 20, 2013 World View Global Education Symposium
    2. 2. A Question for You What are the implications of not having access to the Internet in 2013? • Personally? • Professionally?
    3. 3. • Overview of Internet Usage • • What is the Digital Divide? How Are NC Students & Teachers Affected?
    4. 4. Checking the Facts Which country has the highest internet usage? a) b) c) d) China U.S. Iceland Finland
    5. 5. Checking the Facts Which country has the highest internet usage? a) China b) U.S. c) UK
    6. 6. Checking the Facts Which age group in the U.S has the highest internet usage? a) b) c) d) e) 12 - 17 18 - 29 30 - 49 50 – 64 65 +
    7. 7. http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htmhttp://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm
    8. 8. Top 15 Countries Country Name Iceland Norway Netherlands Sweden Luxembourg Denmark Finland Bermuda Qatar New Zealand Liechtenstein Germany Switzerland Canada Antigua and Barbuda World The World Bank :http://data.worldbank.org 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 88.90 89.07 92.14 95.63 96.62 87.17 90.77 92.18 93.27 93.45 86.14 87.73 89.79 90.71 92.13 82.13 90.17 91.12 90.01 90.88 78.22 81.92 87.28 90.71 90.70 85.15 85.08 86.87 88.76 89.98 80.81 83.72 82.53 86.91 89.33 74.93 82.89 83.77 85.13 88.85 37.00 44.30 53.10 81.60 86.20 69.83 72.18 79.83 83.01 86.18 65.08 70.00 75.00 80.00 85.00 75.39 78.35 79.49 82.53 83.44 76.90 78.43 80.01 82.17 82.99 73.31 76.72 80.17 80.04 82.68 70.06 75.03 74.20 80.00 82.00 20.58 23.19 25.74 29.52 32.77
    9. 9. U.S., China, & the UK 2011 Internet users (per 100 people) • 38 out of 100 people in China were internet users • 78 out of 100 people in the U.S. were internet users • 81 out of 100 people in the UK were internet users
    10. 10. Internet Adoption by Age in the US
    11. 11. Non-Internet Users in the US
    12. 12. Rural America Rural America lags behind the rest of the country in Internet usage, making rural schools an important center of connectivity in the communities. In 2010, 57 percent of rural households had broadband Internet access, compared to 72 percent in urban areas. U.S. Department of Commerce, 2011
    13. 13. How Does NC Rank? • According to the US Department of Commerce, NC ranked 36 out of 50 for Computer and Internet Use in 2010. • 64% in urban NC use broadband internet • 58% in rural NC use broadband internet
    14. 14. What is the Digital Divide?
    15. 15. A Summary of Divides According to the Economic Intelligence Unit (2012), the following is the summary of divides found around the world • • • • • Ability Broadband Education Language Mobile • • • • • Access Content Gender Location Skills • • • • • Age Culture Income Measurement Usage
    16. 16. Digital Divides • Access and Connectivity • Competencies and Skills
    17. 17. Why is it important to bridge the gap? • According to the Information Communications Technologies (ICT) and the 50x15 Initiative, there are 4 important elements: • • • • Economic equality Social Mobility Democracy Economic Growth (Internet World Stats, 2012)
    18. 18. Russia
    19. 19. China
    20. 20. Germany
    21. 21. Brazil
    22. 22. Second Digital Divide • “The digital divide in education goes beyond the issue of access to technology. A second digital divide separates those with the competencies and skills to benefit from computer use from those without” (Trucano, 2010). • Second digital divide lies at the core of the educational challenge faced by many countries today (Trucano, 2010).
    23. 23. Second Digital Divide “Policy decisions must take into consideration the necessary investment in training and support as well. Like education in general, it is not enough to give people a book, we also have to teach them how to read for them to gain any use from it.” “It is not enough to wire all communities and declare that everyone now has equal access to the Internet. They may still continue to lack effective access in that they may not know how to extract information for their needs from the material available on the Web.” “Although providing Internet access may help alleviate some problems of the digital divide, a second-level digital divide remains when it comes to people’s ability to effectively use the medium.” (Hargittai, n.d.).
    24. 24. How Are NC Students & Teachers Affected?
    25. 25. How the demand for skills has changed Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US) Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution 65 60 Routine manual Nonroutine manual 55 Routine cognitive 50 Nonroutine analytic 45 40 1960 Nonroutine interactive 1970 (Levy and Murnane, 2004) 1980 1990 2002
    26. 26. Valued Performances for Now & the Near Future Expert thinking and problem solving involves effective pattern matching based on detailed knowledge. The set of skills used by the stumped expert to decide when to give up on one strategy and what to try next. Complex communication requires the exchange of vast amounts of verbal and nonverbal information. The information flow is constantly adjusted as the communication evolves unpredictably. Levy & Murnane, 2004
    27. 27. Having Our Say: Middle Grade Student Perceptions of School, Technologies, and Academic Engagement Results from a study conducted with 4,000 NC middle grade students •Students demonstrate an increased passion for & reliance on technologies for entertainment & communication. •In many cases, out of school technology use had “lapped” in school technology use, even in rural and underserved schools. •Students demonstrated a sophisticated knowledge about what they want to do in school and what activities interested them. Spires, Lee, Turner, & Johnson, 2008
    28. 28. Having Our Say: US & Chinese Teacher’s Perceptions Spires, Morris & Zhang, 2012
    29. 29. What was happening? Critique?
    30. 30. Digital Literacies & Learning
    31. 31. Reading is becoming more complex!
    32. 32. Proposed definition of digital literacy practices
    33. 33. NC’s 7 Economic Regions
    34. 34. Participants # of Teachers Survey Total Participants 452 Gender Males Females 74 378 % of Teachers Ethnicity American Indian Asian African American Caucasian Hispanic Other 1% 1% 7% 88% 1% 2% Education Bachelor’s Degree Master’s Degree Doctoral Degree 62% 37% 1% Years Teaching Less than 5 years 5-9 years 10-20 years More than 20 years 21% 27% 33% 19%
    35. 35. Survey Results LoTi Level Frequency (Percent) 0 Non-Use 13 (2.9%) 1 Awareness 41 (9.1%) 2 Exploration 131 (29.0%) 3 Infusion 146 (32.3%) 4a Integration (Mechanical) 69 (15.3%) 4b Integration (Routine) 37 (8.3%) 5 Expansion 15 (3.3%) 6 Refinement 0 (0%)
    36. 36. Focus Group Session Results (1) Today’s students need 21st century skills (e.g., problem solving, collaboration, critical thinking, creativity). “They don’t read it. They find a picture and read the caption. If it is not quick or flashing they can’t find it. They need to know how to read, how to find it on the internet and know if it is valuable or not.” (2) Teachers’ roles are changing. “Sometimes students learn better from their peers. Todays’ teachers need to be willing to work outside of their comfort zone and to be open to learning from their students.”
    37. 37. Focus Group Session Results (3) We need technology and professional development in order to be technology savvy. “Once a school buys a program, we are required to learn the program on our own. It would be more helpful if the content was presented when the technology was introduced.” (4) We have challenges implementing digital technology in the classroom. “We have used students cell phones for Google searches, taking pictures and even as a stopwatch (we don’t even have stopwatches in school).”
    38. 38. Research Summary • 12% of NC teachers fully integrated digital tools and resources in a learner-centered approach (levels 4b – 6), placing an emphasis on student action and higher-level thinking. • There appears to be a disconnect between what teachers believe to be the most important school priority and the level of support they are receiving. • Technology is evolving at a fast pace; school infrastructure and teacher capacity are lagging.
    39. 39. Scaling Digitalization Took over 50 years for the electrification of America
    40. 40. What Can You Do To Affect the Digital Divide at your College?
    41. 41. New Literacies Collaborative Join newlit.org
    42. 42. Thank you! Let me hear from you. hiller_spires@ncsu.edu
    43. 43. References • • • • • • • • • • • • • Hargittai (n.d.). Second digital divide: Differences in people’s online skills. Retrieved from http://www.firstmonday.org/issues/issue7_4/hargittai Hitch, C. (n.d.). Improving your technology utilization: A quick review can help you determine whether your school is making the most of its technology budget. Retrieved from http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/638?ref=search James, E. (2000). Learning to bridge the digital divide: Computers alone are not enough to join the e-economy. Digital literacy is too essential too. Centre for Educational Research and Innovation. Internet World Stats (2012). The digital divide, ITC and the 50x15 Initiative. Lenhart, A. (2012). Digital divides and bridges: Technology use among youth. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from http://www.slideshare.net/PewInternet/digital-divides-and-bridges-technology-use-among-youth Spires, H., Bartlett, M., & Garry, A. (2012). Digital Literacies and Learning: Designing a Path Forward. White paper funded by the Friday Institute for Educational Innovation: NCSU Spires, H., Lee, J., Turner, K., & Johnson, J. (2008). Having our say: Middle grades students' perspectives on school, technologies, and academic engagement. Journal of Research in Technology in Education. 40 (4), 497-515. Spires, H., Morris, G., & Zhang, J. (2012). New literacies and emerging technologies: Perspectives from middle grade teachers in the US and China. Research in Middle Level Education, 35(10), 1-11. The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited (2012). Smart policies to close the digital divide: Best practices from around the world. Retrieved from http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un-dpadm/unpan049753.pdf Trucano, M. (2010). The Second Digital Divide. Retrieved from http://blogs.worldbank.org/edutech/the-seconddigital-divide U.S. Department of Commerce. (2011). Exploring the digital nation: Computer and Internet use at home. Retrieved from http://www.ntia.doc.gov/files/ntia/publications/exploring_the_digital_nation_computer_and_internet_use_at_home_ 11092011.pdf. World Bank (2012) Zickuhr, K., & Smith, S. (2012) Digital differences. Pew Research Center’s Internet & American Life Project

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