What Is New about New Literacies


Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

What Is New about New Literacies

  1. 2. Dr. Marlene Asselin Department of Language and Literacy Education University of British Columbia Manitoba School Library Association Annual Conference Winnipeg, October 23, 2009 What is New about the New Literacies?
  2. 3. Rationale <ul><li>People’s understanding of literacy is an important aspect of their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>People’s theories of literacy influence their actions . </li></ul>
  3. 4. Overview <ul><li>What differences do you notice between print-based and new literacies? </li></ul><ul><li>What are the major theories and perspectives of new literacies? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some educational issues arising from these perspectives? </li></ul><ul><li>What should educators consider when designing learning that supports development of new literacies? </li></ul>
  4. 5. Shift (Lawless, Shrader, & Mayall, 2007)
  5. 6. Print-based and New Literacies: What do you Notice? <ul><li>Photo © Julian Luckham http://www.flickr.com/photos/aviewfromhere/237952850/ </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Photo by Jeffrey T. Guterman. http://www.flickr.com/photos/jeffreygutermanflickr/2673401301/ </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/prathambooks/3364198957/ </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/26081675@N06/3841361360/ </li></ul>
  9. 11. . <ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/arasmus/3633665839/ </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nydailynews.com/news/us_world/2009/06/21/2009-06-21_neda_young_girl_killed_in_iran.html </li></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/arasmus/3631380676/ (insert screenshot) </li></ul>
  12. 15. (Lenhart, Madden, & Hitlin, 2005) blogger Similar to book use
  13. 16. Print-based and New/Digital Literacies <ul><li>Skills required in use of new technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive processes in off-line and online environments </li></ul><ul><li>Contrasting cognitive processes and social practices – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Print-based: Limited modalities (reading and writing); limited media (print); reader and author interaction; mono-lingualism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New/digital literacies: Expanded opportunities for production and distribution of content through multi-modal, multi-media forms –e,g. blogging, podcasting, re-mixing, photo-sharing, twittering, etc; and multi-linguism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contrasting assumptions about authorship/experts; knowledge creation and distribution rights and processes </li></ul>
  14. 17. Cognitive Perspectives of New Literacies (Don Leu) <ul><li>Literacy skills required to communicate using ICT such as with e-mail technologies, instant-messaging technologies, or other technologies for communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Skills required on the Internet for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>identifying important questions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>searching for information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>critically evaluating information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>synthesizing very disparate pieces of information. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new literacy skills that are required for communicating. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 18. Research in Online Reading <ul><ul><li>Insert screen shot from this video if possible—first frame: http://www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/videos/marcos1.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source: http://www.newliteracies.uconn.edu/reading.html </li></ul></ul>
  16. 19. Differences in Reading Online <ul><ul><li>Riko is an example of a high achieving offline reader who also is highly proficient with online reading comprehension.  His example supports the prevailing assumption that online and offline reading is the same.  This hypothesis would predict that high achieving offline readers would also be high achieving online readers and that low achieving offline readers would also be low achieving online readers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marcos is a high achieving offline reader but a surprisingly low achieving online reader.  His case  provides evidence that there are additional new reading comprehension skills required during online reading comprehension. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tomas is an example of a very weak offline reader, being provided with supportive services as a student with a specific learning disability in reading.  Surprisingly, however, he was among the top 15% of online readers in our sample. His example shows us that readers who struggle with offline materials may not struggle with online materials to the same extent, as long as they have the skills and strategies essential to online reading comprehension. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 20. Cognitive Perspective of New Literacies <ul><li>Individual focus </li></ul><ul><li>Situation specific </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on finding and using/communicating information in online environments/Internet </li></ul>
  18. 21. Literacy as Social Practices <ul><li>Autonomous and ideological models of literacy (B. Street) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomous: Literacy as technical and neutral skills acquired by individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological: Literacy represents and shapes social and cultural practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideological model underlies sociocultural perspective of new literacies </li></ul><ul><li>V iewing literacy as social practice means that there are social rules about who can produce and use particular literacies – Social regulation of literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy practices are purposeful and embedded in broader social goals and cultural practices </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy practices are patterned by social institutions and power relationships, and some literacies are more dominant, influential and visible than others </li></ul>
  19. 22. Electronic Literature Collection <ul><li>http://collection.eliterature.org/1/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://collection.eliterature.org/1/works/ankerson_sapnar__cruising.html </li></ul><ul><li>http://collection.eliterature.org/1/works/ezzat__like_stars_in_a_clear_night_sky/index.html </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>http://www.edutopia.org/digital-generation-machinima-uganda-video </li></ul>
  21. 24. Some Key Researchers/Theorists <ul><li>Brian Street </li></ul><ul><li>Michel Knobel & Colin Lankshear </li></ul><ul><li>James Gee </li></ul><ul><li>The New London Group </li></ul>
  22. 25. Multimodality <ul><li>Kress & van Leeuwen – notion of different semiotic systems than just orthography. Notion of modes == visual signs, colour systems, layout, notation systems, kinesthetic and other ways of signifying meaning other than language. More mixing of modes possible with today’s digital technologies (not new but more expanded opportunities). </li></ul>
  23. 26. New Literacy Studies/New London Group <ul><li>Multi-lingualism </li></ul><ul><li>Asset view </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple modes of representation valued </li></ul>
  24. 27. Mindsets
  25. 28. Mindsets 1 and 2 <ul><li>World same as before only more technologized: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriately interpreted, understood and responded to in physical-industrial terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value is function of scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industrial view of production (products as material artifacts; focus on infrastructure and production units; tools for producing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on individual intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise and authority located in individuals and institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space as enclosed and purposeful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social relations of “bookspace” and a stable “textual order” </li></ul></ul>
  26. 29. Mindset 2 <ul><li>World is very different as result of uptake of digital electronic internetworked technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>World cannot be adequately interpreted and responded to in physical-industrial terms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value is function of dispersion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-industrial view of production (products as enabling services; focus on leverage and nonfinite participation; tools for mediating and relating) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on collective intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expertise and authority are distributed and collective; hyprid experts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space as open, continuous and fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social relations of emerging “digital media space” and texts in change </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. Participation Culture and New Literacies <ul><li>If it were possible to define generally the mission of education, it could be said that is fundamental purpose is to ensure that all students benefit from learning in ways that allow them to participate fully in public, community, (creative) and economic life. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cope & Kalantzis, 2000, p.9 </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. New Literacies and Conventional Literacies <ul><li>The more a literacy practice privileges participation over publishing, distributed expertise over centralized enterprise, collective intelligence over individual possessive intelligence, collaboration over individuated authorship, dispersion over scarcity, sharing over ownership, innovation and evolution over stability and fixity . . . . the more we should regard it as a ‘new’ literacy (Lankshear & Knobel, 2006, p. 21). </li></ul>
  29. 32. Participatory Culture (Jenkins 2006) <ul><li>1) relatively low barriers to artistic expression and civic engagement; </li></ul><ul><li>2) strong support for creating and sharing one’s work with others; </li></ul><ul><li>3) some type of informal mentorship whereby what is known by the most experienced is passed along to novices; </li></ul><ul><li>4) members believe that their contributions matter; and </li></ul><ul><li>5) members feel some degree of social connection with one another. </li></ul>
  30. 33. Forms of Participatory Culture <ul><li>Affiliations </li></ul><ul><li>Creative expressions </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative problem solving </li></ul><ul><li>Circulations </li></ul>
  31. 34. New Media Literacy Skills (Jenkins) <ul><li>“ Participatory culture shifts the focus from one of individual expression to community involvement. The new literacies almost all involve social skills developed through collaboration and networking. These skills build on the foundation of traditional literacy, research skills, technical skills, and critical analysis skills taught in the classroom.” </li></ul>
  32. 35. Participatory and New Media Literacies <ul><li>Play </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Simulation </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriation </li></ul><ul><li>Multitasking </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed cognition </li></ul><ul><li>Collective intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Judgement </li></ul><ul><li>Transmedia navigation </li></ul><ul><li>Networking </li></ul><ul><li>Negotiation </li></ul>
  33. 36. New Media Literacies <ul><li>http:// www.youtube.com/watch?v = pEHcGAsnBZE </li></ul>
  34. 37. Global Contexts and New Literacies
  35. 40. The Internet and Education: Ethiopian Perspectives
  36. 41. Educational Issues <ul><li>Disjuncture between home/work and school literacies </li></ul><ul><li>Youth and new literacies vs sabertooth curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher support </li></ul>
  37. 42. <ul><li>http://sites.google.com/site/moraedata/videos </li></ul>
  38. 43. Time on web pages: Darren
  39. 44. <ul><li>The top of the webpage is where students are spending almost all their time. They only skim the rest if at all. They only go to the bottom in rare cases. For example, Nicole went there on Wikipedia to enter a term in the search box and Darren went there on the Internet Movie Database (IMDb) to check out the forum sites which he regularly frequents. This make me wonder if its worth including lots of text on a website. I mean how many people are actually reading this portion of this PowerPoint slide. If you are make sure to tell me how great I am. My ego relies on it. I predict that this will impact literacy immensely. Digital text is being read like newspaper. People read the headlines and then decide if they will pursue reading the article. If the headline catches their attention, they start to read the article. I doubt that most people reach the end of most articles though. Don’ they just get the gist of it and move on. Only the most relevant and interesting pieces get read from top to bottom. Digital text is the same way. Skim, skim, skim, skim, skim. Pick up only what is most relevant and move on at the speed of light. Now I’m just plain and simply running out of things to say and relying that no one can read this small print so I’m just going to write a bunch of gibberish. But if you can read it, well good on you. That’s some serious vision you got happening there. Good genes. </li></ul>
  40. 45. Marc Prensky – The Gap <ul><li>Video link to Education 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Schools need to catch up with all the information kids are receiving from everywhere else. Marc Prensky is the author of Don't Bother Me Mom -- I'm Learning . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/digitalnation/learning/schools/education-20.html?play </li></ul>
  41. 47. <ul><li>Photo by Berend B. Available at http://www.flickr.com/photos/berendb/3678734924/sizes/s/ under Creative Commons License </li></ul>
  42. 49. Towards a Participatory School Library <ul><li>In designing spaces, programs, and resources for the school library, consider not just the technology but: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Features (conditions) for learning participatory culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms of participatory culture enacted </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inclusion of new media/literacy skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ways in which and the degree to which the library supports students’ development of new literacies. </li></ul></ul>
  43. 50. School Library Mash-up <ul><li>http://animoto.com/play/5b84f59869b8cbf7c6ab7426548e957e </li></ul>
  44. 51. http://www.wordle.net/show/wrdl/1240707/newliteracies