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# Sampling

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### Sampling

1. 1. RITU<br />M.COM(E-COM)<br />SAMPLING<br />
2. 2. INTRODUTION<br /> The need for adequate and reliable data is ever increasing for taking wise decisions in different fields of human activity and business is no exception to it.<br /><ul><li> Complete enumeration survey or census method
3. 3. Sampling method </li></li></ul><li>CENSUS METHOD<br /> Data are collected for each and every unit belonging to the population or universe which is the complete set of items which are of interest in any particular situation .<br />Advantages of census method are:-<br /><ul><li>Information can be obtained for each and every unit.
4. 4. Greater Accuracy.</li></li></ul><li>SAMPLING METHOD<br /> In the sampling method instead of every unit of the population only a part of the population is studied and the conclusions are drawn on that basis for the entire population.<br />Purpose of sampling :-sampling is only a tool which help to know the characteristics of the universe or population by examining only a small part of it. The value obtain from the study of sample ,such as the average and variance ,are known as ‘statistic’. Such value for the population are called ‘parameters’.<br />
5. 5. PRINCIPLES OF SAMPLING <br />Principle of ‘Statistical Regularity’ ,and<br />Principle of ‘Inertia of Large Numbers’.<br />
6. 6. METHOD OF SAMPLING<br /> when a sample is required to be reflected from a population ,it is necessary to decide which method should be applied .<br /> The various method of sampling or sampling design can be grouped under the head as random sampling and non-sampling .<br />Random sampling referred to as probability sampling since if the sampling process is random ,the law of probability can be applied ;thus the pattern of sampling distribution needed to interpret and evaluate a sample is provided.<br />Non –random sampling is selected on basis other than probability considerations such as expert judgment ,convenience or some critria . The most important aspect of non –sampling worth nothing is that its subject to sampling variability but there is no way of knowing the pattern of variability in the process.<br />
7. 7. A) Random sampling method:<br /> (i)Simple Random Sampling<br /> (ii)Stratified Sampling<br /> (iii)Systematic Sampling <br /> (iv)Multi-stage Sampling<br />B)Non-random sampling method:<br /> (i) Judgment Sampling <br /> (ii)Quota Sampling<br /> (iii)Convenience Sampling.<br />
8. 8. MERITS OF SAMPLING METHOD<br /><ul><li>Less time
9. 9. Less cost
10. 10. More reliable results
11. 11. More detailed information
12. 12. The destructive nature of certain tests</li></li></ul><li>LIMITATIONS OF SAMPLING<br /><ul><li>Must be carefully planned and executed
13. 13. The service of experts
14. 14. At times the Sampling plan may be so complicated that requires more time,labour and money than a complete count.
15. 15. If the information is required for each and every unit in the domain of study, a complete enumeration survey is necessary. </li>