Sampling techniques market research


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Sampling techniques market research

  1. 1. Sampling: Design and Procedures Presented by Dr. Sunil Chauhan 4 Varun Jalan 14 Keith Mascarenhas 24 Krishna R 34 Jigar Shah 44 Adarsh Kumar 54
  2. 2. Some Definitions…• POPULATION: The aggregate of all the elements , sharing some common set of characteristics , that comprises the universe for the purpose of the marketing research problem• CENSUS: A complete enumeration of the elements of a population or study objects• SAMPLE:A subgroup of the elements of the population selected for participation in the study
  3. 3. SAMPLE DESIGNING PROCESS Define the target population Determine the sampling frame Select a sampling technique(s) Determine the sample size Execute the sampling process
  4. 4. So what are these steps??1. DEFINE TARGET POPULATION: The collection of elements or objects that possess the information sought by the researcher and about which inferences are to be made2. DETERMINE THE SAMPLING FRAME: A representation of the elements of the target population
  5. 5. Sample Designing Steps3.SELECTING A SAMPLING TECHNIQUE:• Bayesian approach• Sampling with replacement• Sampling without replacement
  6. 6. Sample Designing Steps4.DETERMINING THE SAMPLE SIZERefers to the number of elements to be included in the studySome factors to be considered are:-a. Importanceb. Nature of researchc. Number of variablesd. Nature of analysise. Sample sizes usedf. Incidence /Completion ratesg. Resource constraints
  7. 7. Sample Designing Steps5. EXECUTE THE SAMPLING PROCESS• Detailed specifications are required for every stage• Procedures should be specified for each stage and on how to conduct the data collection• Contingency plans should be made in case of of non availability of sampling unit
  8. 8. Why Sampling?? Some Advantages of sampling are:- 1. Economical and cheaper 2. Faster to execute 3. Practical in most situation 4. Can give comprehensive information 5. Saves in time and money
  9. 9. Non probability Techniques
  10. 10. Non-probability Sampling• Non probability sampling does not involve random selection• Accidental or Purposive Non-probability techniques Convenience Judgemental Snowball Sampling Quota Sampling Sampling Sampling
  11. 11. Convenience Sampling• ADVANTAGES – Easy access – Used in pilot studies• DISADVANTAGES – Sampling bias, sample not representative – Poor external validity
  12. 12. SNOWBALL SAMPLING• Linear Snowball Sampling• Exponential Non-Discriminative Snowball Sampling• Exponential Discriminative Snowball Sampling
  13. 13. • ADVANTAGES OF SNOWBALL SAMPLING – The chain referral process allows the researcher to reach populations that are difficult to sample when using other sampling methods. – Cheap, simple and cost-efficient. – Little planning and fewer workforce compared to other sampling techniques• DISADVANTAGES OF SNOWBALL SAMPLING – Little control over the sampling method – Representativeness of the sample is not guaranteed
  14. 14. JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING• Involves selecting a group of people because they have particular traits that the researcher wants to study• This type of sampling technique is also known as purposive sampling and authoritative sampling• e.g. consumers of a particular product or service in some types of market research
  15. 15. • EXAMPLE OF JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING In a study wherein a researcher wants to know what it takes to graduate summa cum laude in college, the only people who can give the researcher first hand advise are the individuals who graduated summa cum laude. With this very specific and very limited pool of individuals that can be considered as a subject, the researcher must use judgmental sampling.• WHEN TO USE JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING ??• SETBACKS OF JUDGMENTAL SAMPLING.are with the authority and in the sampling process• WHEN TO USE QUOTA SAMPLES
  16. 16. QUOTA SAMPLING In quota sampling the selection of the sample is made by the interviewer, who has been given quotas to fill from specified sub-groups of the population.STEP-BY-STEP QUOTA SAMPLINGEXAMPLE OF QUOTA SAMPLES• In a study wherein the researcher likes to compare the academic performance of the different high school class levels, its relationship with gender and socioeconomic status, the researcher first identifies the subgroups.
  17. 17. • Usually, the subgroups are the characteristics or variables of the study. The researcher divides the entire population into class levels, intersected with gender and socioeconomic status. Then, he takes note of the proportions of these subgroups in the entire population and then samples each subgroup accordingly.DISADVANTAGES OF QUOTA SAMPLES• Only the selected traits of the population were taken into account in forming the subgroups
  18. 18. Probability Techniques Probablity techniques Simple Random Systemic Stratified Cluster Sampling OthersSampling Sampling Sampling Disproportionate Proportionate
  19. 19. Simple Random SamplingSimple random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which every unit has an equal nonzero chance of being selected
  20. 20. Systematic Random Sampling Systematic random sampling is a method of probability sampling in which the defined target population is ordered and the sample is selectedaccording to position using a skip interval
  21. 21. Steps in Drawing a Systematic Random Sample• 1: Obtain a list of units that contains an acceptable frame of the target population• 2: Determine the number of units in the list and the desired sample size• 3: Compute the skip interval• 4: Determine a random start point• 5: Beginning at the start point, select the units by choosing each unit that corresponds to the skip interval
  22. 22. Stratified Sampling• Population divided into non-overlapping strata followed by random selection, random systemic selection• Types – Proportionate and Disproportionate• Useful – for homogenous groups, to highlight a specific strata, find relationship between two strata• Advantages – sample representative, biases reduced, external validity, greater precision• Disadvantages – relevance of stratification variables, cost, time
  23. 23. Cluster sampling• Division of entire population into geographical clusters, followed by simple random, systemic random methods• One stage & Two stage• Useful in case of homogenous population• Advantages – cheap, quick & easy• Disadvantages – sampling error in case of non- homogenous population
  24. 24. Other Sampling Techniques• Sequential Sampling• Double Sampling
  25. 25. Conditions Favoring the Use ofFactors Nonprobability Probability sampling samplingNature of research Exploratory ConclusiveRelative magnitude of sampling Nonsampling Samplingand nonsampling errors errors are errors are larger largerVariability in the population Homogeneous Heterogeneou (low) s (high)Statistical considerations Unfavorable FavorableOperational considerations Favorable Unfavorable
  26. 26. International Marketing Research• Differing Respondents – US • Cereal:Children • Automobiles: Women – Middle East • Automobiles: Men• Accessibility – Unnumbered & unidentified streets/houses – Cultural norms • Mexico • Saudi Arabia• Sampling frame – Unavailability of information on target population • Lack of census • Red tape – Unavailable/inaccurate maps
  27. 27. International Marketing ResearchCase:Consumers feel that a purchase in accompanied by a degree of riskTarget Respondent:Upper middle-income woman residing in major cityCountries for comparison:US with Mexico, Netherlands, Turkey, Thailand & Saudi ArabiaLocation Sampling Technique How?United States Random Sampling Telephone directoryMexico Judgemental Sampling 1. Experts identified neighbourhoods 2. Random selectionThailand Judgemental Sampling Store intercept techniqueSaudi Arabia Convenience Sampling Snowball Technique
  28. 28. Internet Applications Example: ITOCHU Corporation• Launched Internet sampling service, February 14, 2011• Sampling resources – Yahoo! Japan • Yahoo Japan Corporation – Famiport multimedia terminals installed in approximately 8,100 FamilyMart stores nationwide • FamilyMart Co., Ltd. – Co., Ltd.
  29. 29. ITOCHU Corporation• Features: – Identifies sampling target Issues coupon IDs to the potential purchaser group that is being targeted by the provider of the product based on surveys to which consumers have responded on the “Premono” site in Yahoo! Japan – Reduces sampling operating costs Coupon IDs are issued by e-mail and samples are handed over at FamilyMart stores, thus greatly reducing sampling operating costs such as distribution costs and labor costs. – Gathers marketing data related to sampling Uses the “Premono” site in Yahoo! Japan to conduct preliminary and follow-up questionnaire surveys of sampling targets, thereby providing effective marketing data to the provider of the product
  30. 30. ITOCHU Corporation
  31. 31. Thank You