DPU-UCL Lecture Dev Env & Pui
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DPU-UCL Lecture Dev Env & Pui



Development, Environment & Peri-Urban Interface

Development, Environment & Peri-Urban Interface



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DPU-UCL Lecture Dev Env & Pui DPU-UCL Lecture Dev Env & Pui Presentation Transcript

  • DPU, UCL Module DA1 – Session 14 Development, environment and the peri-urban interface Julio D Dávila Development Planning Unit University College London J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Some features of the peri-urban interface in metropolitan areas 1 A. The PUI is where urban and rural activities meet: • Definition of ‘urban’, ‘rural’, ‘peri-urban’ (or ‘semi-urban’): often vague, shifting, subject to perceptions • Implications of political and administrative definitions and changes in these (e.g. upgrading or degrading of townships; creation or abolition of metropolitan areas): fiscal and human resource; electoral; managerial J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Some features of the peri-urban interface in metropolitan areas 2 B. In environmental terms: • A heterogeneous ‘mosaic’ of ‘natural’, ‘agrarian’ and ‘urban’ eco- systems • Affected by material and energy flows demanded both by rural and urban systems • Close relationship between socio-economic and environmental processes J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Some features of the peri-urban interface in metropolitan areas 3 C. Dynamic and socially & economically heterogeneous • Often subject to rapid change (e.g. land use, population) • Co-existence of groups with different and often competing interests, as well as different practices • Constant change makes it difficult to create stable and legitimate long-term institutional structures J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Some features of the peri-urban interface in metropolitan areas 4 D. Political and institutional fragmentation or even vacuum • Issues of definition and perception have administrative, fiscal and human resource implications • Roles are often ill-defined or non-existent • Conflict between customary and non-customary land tenure and water rights • Private appropriation of large (and environmentally valuable) spaces without adequate state regulation (gated communities, golf courses, quarries, forests) • All this requires a new conceptual and methodological framework J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural systems Rural – Urban Flows Urban systems Structural changes Functions/role People Non-agricultural employment Socio-economic Production Urban services structure and relations Production supplies Commodities Non-durable and Rural economy durable goods (sectors) Capital/income Markets for selling rural products Rural production Information Processing / regimes manufacturing Information on Natural resources employment, production, prices, W aste and pollution welfare services Source: Based on Douglass, M. 1998, ‘A Regional Network Strategy for Reciprocal Rural-Urban Linkages’, Third W orld Planning Review, Vol. 20, No. 1, pp 1-33. Source: Allen & Dávila (2002) J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Processes of change in the PUI Pressures Processes of Problems Change Loss of agricultural land, Local leading to a e.g. land competition Changes in land use loss of livelihoods for urban expansion e.g. from agricultural to for poor farmers & agricultural industrial or and shortages production residential uses in food production Regional & national Changes in the use e.g. promotion of on natural resources Opportunities decentralised e.g. deforestation, New sources of industrialisation, water depletion and Employment Privatisation of pollution Land for low-cost natural resources Housing Better transport links International Changes in the Improved access to e.g. Falling prices of infrastructure and generation of waste export crops social facilities e.g. increased solid and liquid waste Source: Allen & Dávila (2002) J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Lessons from international program m es and projects W ater & Sanitation Progra m mes C FP/C ID A, U PA/F AO , U N C H S/U M P , SC P, L A21, Who? U N D P/W ord Ban k, W H O ,U N IC EF N R S P/D F ID , C AR E, M E IP, U N D P, IC L E I L A21 & U S A ID , C ID A, C AR E, O XFAM SA V E, U N D P M odel C o m mun ities Built-up areas R ural V illages an d C ity and bu ilt-up surroundings Conceptualisation Poor inform al urban periphery Peri-U rban fring e settle ments R ural-urban links Particular PU prob le ms Peri-urban fring e H ealth - Education Peri-urban H orticu lture Infrastructure PU Agriculture U rban Env ironm enta l PU F orestry Pla nnin g and Themes Safety nets M icro-credit N atural R esources M anage me nt Source: Budds & Minaya (1999) J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural-urban linkages and poverty How is poverty conceptualised: Poverty is the result of a complex process of social, juridical, spatial, economic, and political exclusion Poverty cannot be reduced to income alone ‘The poor’ are not a homogeneous group; neither are the different members of the same household This supposes access to a diversity of livelihood assets (social, natural, financial, physical, human) Rural-urban linkages can become important in a survival strategy for the very poor This will depend on the physical location of different household members (which changes over time), as well as other factors such as gender, migrant status, political affiliation, ethnicity, religion J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • n In the processes described above, different groups will be affected differently from rural-urban linkages n This will depend on the degree of access to factors such as proximity to urban centres, access to land, access to natural resources and participation in political processes n Hence, legal, political, social, spatial, environmental and economic policies and frameworks of intervention will play a crucial role in guaranteeing or blocking access to such factors J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural-urban and peri-urban processes of change Land: The most visible dimension of urban growth Shifts from rural to urban use will affect some groups more than other (e.g. Older women in Kumasi, Ghana) With growth, and without a legal framework to protect them, landless farmers and small farmers are forced to move away from urban centres Land use conversion are facilitated by national (e.g. industrialization) & local (e.g. exclusion of rural dimensions in metropolitan or urban plans) policies J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural-urban and peri-urban processes of change Natural resources: Peri-urban poor tend to depend more on access to natural resources than those who are more urban-based and those with higher incomes They therefore suffer more from degradation or loss or resources Peri-urban environmental services (forests, lakes) provide recreation to urban & peri-urban poor; when degraded, higher income households can afford to travel further afield to enjoy these Use of natural resources by peri-urban poor varies from one region to another in the world: fuel (wood) in Asia and Africa; forest resources in SE Asia; construction materials in Latin America J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural-urban and peri-urban processes of change Changes in farming practices: With urban expansion, peri-urban farming land that is not lost to traditional urban uses can lose farming potential through pesticides & water over-extraction and extensive irrigation (eg. Flowers & horticulture) Capital-intensive practices can displace the peri-urban poor who lack capital for these activities (e.g. Asunción, Paraguay) Intensive farming carry higher health risks (pesticides) J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural-urban and peri-urban processes of change Livelihood diversification: As rural-urban linkages intensify through the flow of people, capital, goods, information, their relevance for livelihoods increases Temporary or permanent migration of household members (usually gender-differentiated) of rural households is an old mechanism to increase the household income and reduce vulnerability: multi-spatial households and enterprises At times of economic crisis (e.g. high unemployment among men due to restructuring through SAP), proximity to urban markets can benefit some more than others (e.g. rural women in Mali) An efficient transport infrastructure allows the daily commuting to urban centres to look for work Some proximity but a relative isolation can open new opportunities especially if there are high concentrations of labour (e.g. Tuy Valley, Caracas) J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • The diversity of non-urban livelihoods: Primary occupation of rural non-agricultural working population in Northeast Brazil (%), 1996 Primary Extensao Povoado/2 Núcleo/3 Exclusive/4 occupation urbana/1 Mining 1.2 3.1 n.d. 2.3 Manufacturing 16.9 24.2 n.d. 34.2 Sales 21.7 20.3 n.d. 14.2 Services 60.2 52.4 n.d. 49.3 Total working 317.289 1.083.146 23.796 6.504.428 population Note: 21.8 % of rural workers in the Northeast region are engaged in non-agricultural primary occupations Key (based on IBGE classification): 1. Urbanised areas within 1 km of the urban perimeter but not formally incorporated into it 2. Agglomerations in rural areas with some permanent structures 3. Isolated rural agglomeration with between 10 and 51 households, usually attached to some commercial activity 4. Areas which do not meet any of the criteria definingJ.Dávila, DPU, UCL an agglomeration Source: Ferreira & Lanjouw (2001)
  • Rural-urban and peri-urban processes of change Access to services and urban waste: Urban expansion & infrastructure improvements can facilitate access to basic services for rural and peri-urban groups (health, education) Child mortality & morbidity tend to be lower in urban & peri-urban areas, partly due to better access to services, and partly because urban food tends to be more diverse and rich in energy and micro-nutrients For many peri-urban poor, access to solid and liquid waste is an important source of income and fertilisers J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Rural-urban and peri-urban processes of change Access to information and power: Access to political power and information on prices, legal rights, livelihood opportunities and so on, tend to be better represented in urban than in rural or peri-urban areas The intensity in flows of people, goods and information contributes to increase knowledge horizons to isolated populations, thus improving chances of increasing incomes and livelihood options J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Much of DPU’s peri-urban interface work is downloadable: www.ucl.ac.uk/dpu/pui J.Dávila, DPU, UCL
  • Additional bibliography Brook, R, Purushothaman, S and Hunshal, C, 2001, Changing frontiers. The Peri-urban interface, Hubli- Dharwad, India, Books for Change, Bangalore, India. Budds, J and Minaya, A, 1999, “Overview of initiatives regarding the management of the peri-Urban interface”, Development Planning Unit, UCL. Ferreira, F and Lanjouw, P, 2001, “Rural Nonfarm Activities and Poverty in the Brazilian Northeast”, World Development, Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 509-528. Tacoli, C, 1999, “Understanding the opportunities and constraints for low-income groups in the peri-urban interface: the contribution of livelihood frameworks”, Development Planning Unit, UCL. Wiggins, S and Holt, G, 2000, “Literature review: Poverty, urban poverty and forest and tree goods and services”, Report to Forestry Research Programme: Researchable constraints to the use of forest and tree resources by poor urban and peri-urban households in developing countries, University of Reading. J.Dávila, DPU, UCL