Challenges and Good Practices in Resettlement Caused by Hydropower


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Mekong Forum on Water, Food and Energy. 2012. Presentation from Session 9: Mekong Experiences with Sustainable Hydropower Development

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Challenges and Good Practices in Resettlement Caused by Hydropower

  1. 1. Professor Guoqing SHI National Research Center for Resettlement (NRCR) Hohai University , Nanjing, CHINAMember of International Displacement and Resettlement Network (IDRN) Website:
  2. 2. Background Why we talk about Involuntary Resettlement in Sustainable Hydropower ? Hydropower= Dam/hydropower plant +Resettlement +Other impacts and mitigate measures (social, env., etc.) Involuntary resettlement – Is key challenge in hydropower worldwide – are key issue of hydropower development – should be sustainable and successful – should accompany advanced sustainable hydropower
  3. 3. The Magnitude of Development Displacement and Resettlement 14-15,000,000 new DDPs /year in 2000-2010 Compared to only 10,000,000 each year in 1991-2000 Dams Alone displaced between 40-80,000,000 (data WCD) India: 65 million over 55 years (1950-2005) China: 80 million over 60 years (1950-2010)
  4. 4. Some good cases in China Three Gorges Dam: 1.3 millions DDP 1993-2009 Xiaolangdi Dam: 199,000 DDP 1994-2003 ---One of best practice assessed by World Bank Danjiangkou phase 2: 350,000 DDP 2009-2011 Jinghong Dam- Lancan River- Upstream of Mekong 2003-2010, 5285 DDP Nuozhadu Dam-Lancan River- Upstream of Mekong 2006- ,46,000 DDP……..
  5. 5. Three Gorges Dam Project-1.3 millions APs 三峡 130 万移 民 Budget (price in May 1993) 10.2 Billions USD, Resettlement Budget 5 Billions USD 1993-2009
  6. 6. Three Gorges Dam 三峡工程 1.3 millions APs, 44% rural farmers and 56% urban citizen, in 2 provinces and 21 county/districts 1,626 enterprises and 11 towns, 2 cities affected 200,000 rural APs relocated with long distant in 11 coast or downstream provinces, others relocated within county resettlement budget 5 billions USD, 44.6% of dam project budget (12 billions USD) estimated in the price in May 1993 All APs have been relocated before June 2009 smoothly
  7. 7. • One of the state key projects--flood control, power, and irrigation in Yellow River, Funded by World Bank• Impact scope of the land requisition involves provinces, 8 counties 29 townships, 174 villages, 200,000 APs mainly rural people, 134,000 ha cultivatable land•Budget: Project’s-- 3.5 Billion USD, resettlement--1Billion•Finished resettlars’ relocation in 2004
  8. 8. IR relevant topics in HSAP (Preparation stage)Key topics Associated topics P-13 Affected communities &  P-1 Communications and livelihoods Consultation P-14 Resettlement  P-3 Governance P-15 Indigenous people  P-5 Environmental and Social Impacts Assessment & Management (ESIAM)  P-6 Integrated Project Management  P-10 Project Benefits  P-18 Public Health  P-22 Reservoir Planning
  9. 9. Contents of Involuntary Resettlement Three different displacement – Physical displacement (houses, facilities etc.) – Economic displacement (farmland, livelihood, jobs, employment etc.) – Social displacement (network, education, religious…) Resettlement & Reconstruction (R&R) – Resettlement of the population – Relocation of the affected persons – Reconstruction of the facilities and communities
  10. 10. What challenges? Resettlars were impoverished, rather than better off in many hydropower project in the past world widely Many hydropower dams can not be built or delayed construction due to Involuntary resettlement A lot of argument, conflict and complain arise in the public caused by IR Resettlement cost is increasing rapidly in the hydropower sector Can we take the Risks to be the Opportunities?---YES!
  11. 11. Challenges--Impoverishment Risks Michael M Cernea  Landlessness developer  Joblessness  Homelessness IRR Model  MarginalizationImpoverishment  Food InsecurityRisks &  Increased MorbidityReconstruction MortalityModel  Loss of Access to Com. Prop.  Social Disarticulation
  12. 12. Key challengesHow to reach the good objectives of IR --Benefit sharing through HydropowerOpportunities Better living standards (houses, road, water, electricity, school, clinics, market, community, religious facility Better and sustainable livelihoods (farmlands, frestry,fishing, grassland, jobs etc.) Better and sustainable income (amount, structure etc.) Better socio-economic environment for living
  13. 13. Good approach To use IRR’s Model in the IRFour functions• Predictive• Diagnostic• Problem-Resolution• Research
  14. 14. Good approach• From Landlessness to Land-Based Reestablishment• From Joblessness to Reemployment• From Homelessness to House Reconstruction• From Disarticulation to Community Reconstruction• From Marginalization to Social Inclusion• From Expropriation to Restoration of Community Assets/Services• From Food Insecurity to Adequate Nutrition• From Increased Morbidity to Better Health Care
  15. 15. Fundamental good policy and practice ----International experiences WB/ADB…Policies Practice Minimize the land acquisition and  Land for land option resettlement  House for house or cash If it can not avoid, income restoration compensation in and livelihoods recovering of pre- replacement cost or resettlement level (no project) market value RAP (Resettlement Action Plan)  Institution arrangement Compensation in replacement cost and full time staff All cost covered by Project  Supervision Participation and consultation process  Monitoring ……….. ……..
  16. 16. Good Governance-Chinese experiences Law-Land Administration Law National Regulations-Reservoir Resettlement Regulation National Technique standards- PD standards “1+7” Institution system -Resettlement Bureau +Staffs in National, Province, City and county level Capacity building -education/ Ph.D+Master+training +Research-NRCR-Hohai University Good Policies: Compensation +Pre-/Im-/Post assistants Implementation+ Monitoring +Supervision Benefits sharing mechanism Consultation process + Participation+ Transparence……
  17. 17. Bases of good practices in resettlementand affected communities and livelihoods Good resettlement policies and legislation system Good governance and institution system Good RP (resettlement plan) prepared with participation approach and consultation process Good detail designs Good RIP and its implementation Independent monitoring and supervision mechanism Participation of APs Consultation and grievance process Self- organization and self-management of ACs High attention the special impacts in social, culture and traditional livelihoods and develop mitigation measures for affected indigenous people or ethnic minority Capacity building through research, training and education
  18. 18. What are best-practices in resettlement ?Deliver better living conditions for resettlars House  Housing – Better quality – Replacement price as fundamental – Larger space – Minimal compensation standard in – Higher value concrete-brick structure house 24 m² per Community facilities capital (benefits for poor families) – Water supply – Electricity supply  Community facilities rehabilitation – Roads – good location selected by local government – Clinics and satisfied by APs – School – public facilities rebuilt in better standards, – Market cost by project and local government – TV and internet…
  19. 19. Danjiangkou Dam- Resettlement Villages/ 2011House space per person in 10 villages (pre- vs post-) photos: Guanggou Village
  20. 20. Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Village photo in 2011School teachers (pre- vs post-) in 10 villages
  21. 21. Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Villages/ 2011Water supply in 10 villages (pre- vs post)
  22. 22. What are best-practices in resettlement (affected community and livelihoods) ? Restoration and development of sustainable livelihoods of affected people – Land for land as the first priority option for rural farmers – Help to generate multi income sources Farmlands and food/pp in 10 villages ( pre- vs post-) – Deliver the post-resettlement support fund for livelihoods – Deliver micro credit support – Deliver technique skills and training – Create non-farming jobs and deliver employment services
  23. 23. Danjiangkou Dam IR- Guanggou Village2011
  24. 24. Best practices in Resettlement and AffectedCommunity and Livelihoodsinnovation --Benefits sharing mechanism Higher reconstruction standards for houses and community’s public facilities in resettlement villages Income restoration and improvement for APs – Long term compensation (LTC) for farmers who loosen farmlands according to annual output of farmlands annually up to the end of life of the hydropower station, rather than compensation once when land acquisition happens – Socioeconomic pension replaced farmland use (SPRFU) for old farmers- standard high than the income from farmlands – Farmlands asserts securitization (FAS) as the Patten of sustainable hydropower development through the “farmland resource assertslization- asserts capitalization- capital securitization” innovation mechanism – Skills and employments with high wages for young and middle age APs
  25. 25. Possible results of good practices Affected people want to be resettled From Involuntary resettlement to Voluntary resettlement Turn risks to opportunities through resettlement Affected people shares benefits of hydropower development rather than be impoverished Increase social sustainability and social friendship of hydropower development
  26. 26. Conclusion IR is one of the most important issues IR has many challenges especially in livelihoods reconstruction and living standard recovering IR can be successful PAPs can share the benefits of hydropower The good policies, planning and design, implementation are basic elements of good IR
  27. 27. Thanks foryour attention!