Medieval Europe: 476 CE <ul><li>Western part of Roman Empire was the least important because it had the smallest population and the fewest resources for trade. </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Roman Empire went on for another thousand years as the Byzantine Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>Barbaric invasions led to West’s demise which broke up into smaller states that were highly DECENTRALIZED. </li></ul>
<ul><li>“ De-urbanization” – people left the cities as opportunities for trade diminished and the infrastructure broke down – nobody knew how to fix it. </li></ul><ul><li>London was about 10,000 people compared to Baghdad which was close to a million. </li></ul><ul><li>People went into the countryside and were at the mercy of renegade soldiers, bandits, and barbarians. </li></ul><ul><li>The need for stability and safety became paramount. </li></ul>Europe 481 C.E.
<ul><li>Local thugs with armies rose to power and set up local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>They controlled the land (the only available form of wealth) and handed out the right to farm a piece of land if the vassal promised to provide part of the crops, work the Lord’s land and provide military service. “Feudalism” </li></ul><ul><li>The resulting system that took hold locally was the “Manor System”. </li></ul><ul><li>The laborers were called “serfs” and soldiers were called “knights” </li></ul>Medieval Europe: 526 CE
<ul><li>Government </li></ul><ul><li>Frankish King 771-814 </li></ul><ul><li>Created many administrative units and appointed military governors – gave land to his warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Used “Missi Domini” to report on affairs </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled with the sword – continual warfare </li></ul>Charlemagne
<ul><li>Religion </li></ul><ul><li>Wanted to create “Respublica Christiana” a Christian Republic </li></ul><ul><li>Converted conquered people to Christianity “Christianity by the sword” </li></ul><ul><li>Pope Leo III crowned him Holy Roman Emperor – 800 CE </li></ul><ul><li>Built many churches </li></ul>Charlemagne
<ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Most people were poor and illiterate </li></ul><ul><li>Encouraged trade and learning </li></ul><ul><li>Studies Latin, Greek, Rhetoric, logic, astronomy, grammar, math, music – Liberal Arts curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Monasteries had scriptoria and wrote manuscripts </li></ul>Charlemagne
Conquered Land United all Germanic people Modern France, Belgium, Holland, Switzerland, most of Germany, Spain, Italy Main city - Aachen Carolingian Empire
Charlemagne Legacy Blended Roman past, Germanic life, and Christianity – Foundation for European society First Emperor in West since 476 Standardized minting of coins, writing style, Uniform religious practices and culture
Political Developments Feudalism prevailed. Weak central authority meant that lords and vassals ruled locally through feudal obligations to the upper lords and king. The Catholic Church was single strongest unifying factor across Western Europe during this period. FEUDALISM
Economic Developments Serfdom and the manor system prevailed. Serfs were obligated to give a percentage of their crops to the lord in exchange for a plot of land and protection. Manors operated as self-sufficient communities and a lack of food surpluses resulted in most of the population being tied to agriculture . The lord of the manor determined what was to be raised and how much of it. Serfs were peasants who were bound to the land for life. They could not leave the manor without permission of the lord. MANORIALISM
Relationships in Medieval Society Land Military Service King Knighthood Knights Serfs Chivalry Labor Farming <ul><li>- Protection from knights and lord </li></ul><ul><li>Land for _______________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Economic security against crop failure </li></ul><ul><li>Justice in a local court </li></ul><ul><li>- _____________ to knights and lord </li></ul><ul><li>Help defending the castle in attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Payments for use of land </li></ul>Serfs <ul><li>- Title from King </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes from serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Labor from serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty from serfs </li></ul><ul><li>- Protection to serfs </li></ul><ul><li>Support to vassals as a warrior </li></ul><ul><li>Loyalty, Code of _____________ </li></ul>Knights <ul><li>- Taxes/loyalty/military support from knights and other lesser vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Labor from ____________ for tasks such as building roads, bridges, and dams </li></ul><ul><li>- Land to ____________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Support to lords in the form of money, military service, and loyalty </li></ul>Vassals ( lesser lords ) <ul><li>- Allegiance, loyalty and faithfulness to obligations from vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Tributary money or goods </li></ul><ul><li>Military service when summoned </li></ul><ul><li>3 feudal dues: ransom, dowry, and __________________ </li></ul><ul><li>- Landed estates (fief) to vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Justice in disputes among vassals </li></ul><ul><li>Armed forces </li></ul><ul><li>Support to _______________ </li></ul>Lords Taxes/loyalty/ ___________________________ __________ (fief) to lords King Received Provided Title
Social Developments Nobility of birth determined one’s social status. In the upper classes, marriage was key to political power, Honor, loyalty, and duty were stressed under the knight’s code of chivalry. Religious and moral authority rested in the hands of the Catholic Church and the Pope. Rigid Social Structure Serfs
PRO’S AND CON’S OF FEUDALISM <ul><li>Provided stability in a very uncertain time. </li></ul><ul><li>Did provide a way for most people to make some kind of a living. </li></ul><ul><li>Did provide protection. </li></ul><ul><li>Highly decentralized – the king was held in high regard but had very little real power. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the power was really held in the hands of the nobles. </li></ul><ul><li>Since Europe was not unified it was open to attack from without and internal fighting between local nobles and kings. </li></ul><ul><li>Very inward looking with very little contact overseas. </li></ul><ul><li>Lost most of the learning it had gained during classical times. </li></ul><ul><li>Classical thoughts and practices continued in other parts of the world. </li></ul>
THE FALL OF ROME AND MEDIEVAL EUROPE <ul><li>Created a very different type of society – only in Japan do you find a similar society. </li></ul><ul><li>Medieval Europe becomes highly decentralized. </li></ul><ul><li>New groups invade Europe and drastically change its make up. </li></ul><ul><li>New types of organizing society become necessary for people to survive. </li></ul><ul><li>The only Roman institution to survive in Western Europe is the Roman Catholic Church. </li></ul>
The Holy Land <ul><li>Palestine (Jerusalem) taken over by Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Clermont (1095): Pope encourages “crusade” to rescue the Holy Land from the Muslims </li></ul>
Reasons for the Crusades <ul><li>Pope hoped it would re-unite 2 branches of Christianity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase prestige of Church </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce warfare at home: have knights fight Muslims, not each other </li></ul>
Why Join? <ul><li>Why would anyone agree to leave home and fight this “holy war?” </li></ul>
Why Join? <ul><li>Any knight that fought in the Crusades: </li></ul><ul><li>Had his sins forgiven </li></ul><ul><li>Anyone who died gained salvation and went to heaven </li></ul><ul><li>Had debts wiped out </li></ul><ul><li>Exempt from taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Rumors of many riches in Palestine </li></ul>
Fight for the Holy Land… <ul><li>The crusades were a SERIES of battles for control of the Holy Land. </li></ul><ul><li>Christians and Muslims battle back and forth for the land. </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually taken back by the Muslims. </li></ul>
Later Crusades <ul><li>Earliest Crusaders TRULY intended to fight for God/Church </li></ul><ul><li>Later Crusades were about greed and politics </li></ul><ul><li>Crusaders attacked trade rivals and looted churches </li></ul>
Results of the Crusades <ul><li>Later Crusades hurt image of Church </li></ul><ul><li>New goods coming in from Middle East </li></ul><ul><li>Leads to increased trade and exploration </li></ul><ul><li>Brought about decline of feudalism and beginning of end of “Dark Ages” </li></ul><ul><li>Increased “Cultural Diffusion” between Christian and Muslim world. </li></ul>
Ring around the rosie R osary beads give you God's help or description of circular red rash on body Pocket full of posies Used to stop the odor of rotting bodies which was at one point thought to cause the plague, it was also used widely by doctors to protect them from the infected plague patients. Ashes, ashes (Achoo, achoo) T he church burned the dead when burying them became too laborious. We all fall down DEAD The death of family members left the children facing sorrow and pain at an early age. Exposure to public nudity, craziness, and (obviously) abundant death was premature. Parents even abandoned their children, leaving them to the streets instead of risking the babies giving them the dreaded "pestilence". Children were especially unlucky if they were female. Baby girls would be left to die because parents would favor male children that could carry on the family name. Ring Around the Rosie
Do now <ul><li>As you look at the painting by Pieter Bruegel on the next slide, answer the following questions in your notebook: </li></ul><ul><li>How could you describe the landscape? </li></ul><ul><li>What feelings does this painting evoke? </li></ul><ul><li>What kinds of things are people doing? </li></ul><ul><li>Provide another title for the painting </li></ul>"Triumph of Death“ (1562)
Just as Europe climbs out of the Dark Ages, a deadly plague spreads across the continent and kills over 25 million people. What was the Black Death? <ul><li>What do you think was the main cause for the spread of the Black Death? </li></ul><ul><li>War with the Mongols </li></ul><ul><li>Touching someone who was infected </li></ul><ul><li>Rats and Fleas </li></ul><ul><li>Infected cats, dogs, cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Breathing in people’s germs </li></ul>
How did the Black Death spread throughout Europe? How it was Transmitted
Just as Europe climbs out of the Dark Ages, a deadly plague spreads across the continent and kills over 25 million people. How did it start?
Plague started in Mongolia, traveled to the Gobi Desert in the 1320's and arrived in China in the mid 14th/c. From China, plague moved along trade routes to the West and to the gatekeepers of Western trade: the Italians. Genoese traders are generally thought to have brought plague to Europe and the Islamic world. How did the Black Death spread throughout Europe?
"Many believed that the disease was transmitted upon the air, probably because the smell from the dead and dying was so awful. So, the living turned to scents to ward off the deadly vapors. People burned all manner of incense; Others had handkerchiefs dipped in aromatic oils, to cover their faces when going out. Towns rang church bells to drive the plague away, for the ringing of town bells was done in crises of all kinds. Other towns fired cannons, which was new and made a comfortingly loud ding. There were no ends to talismans, charms, and spells that could be purchased from the local wise woman or apothecary. Many people knew of someone's friend or cousin who had drank elderberry every day, or who had worn a jade necklace, and who had survived the dreaded disease." People were ignorant about its cause; they blamed the stars, God’s anger, and the Jews. What were three things that people used to ward off the plague? Why were they ineffective? Why couldn’t people stop the spread of the Black Death?
When doctors would treat people with the plague, many wore clothes that they mistakenly believed would protect them from the disease. If you were a patient, what would you think if you saw a doctor come through your door dressed in the clothes above? What or who do you think this is? Why couldn’t people stop the spread of the Black Death?
Some believed that the plague was caused by God’s anger, so repentance for sins would end the plague. One group, the Flagellants, whipped themselves publicly with iron spikes to earn God’s forgiveness. They saw this as sacrificing themselves in order to earn forgiveness for the world’s sins, as Jesus did. Many Flagellants and their followers massacred Jews because they believed Jews had poisoned wells in order to spread the disease. In October 1349 the pope condemned them and ordered all authorities to suppress them. But flagellants reappeared in times of plague into the fifteenth century. The Flagellants
How did the Black Death change life in Europe? Giovanni Boccaccio How did the Black Death change life in Europe?
How did the Black Death change life in Europe? Giovanni Boccaccio How did the Black Death change life in Europe?
<ul><li>Many serfs escaped to cities, which led to the growth and importance of towns. </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer workers were available which allowed serfs, peasants and urban workers to demand more freedom or higher wages. </li></ul><ul><li>When nobles and merchants attempted to restore the old standards, resentment grew and revolts broke out across Europe between 1378-1382. </li></ul><ul><li>The plague reduced demand for European goods, which forced farmers to diversify their crops. </li></ul>Economic and Social Impact <ul><li>Manorial system and power of the feudal lords weakened. </li></ul>How did the Black Death change life in Europe?
How did the Black Death change life in Europe? “ How many valiant men, how many fair ladies, breakfast with their families and the same night had dinner with their ancestors in the next world! The condition of the people was pitiable to behold. They sickened by the thousands daily, and died unattended and without help. Many died in the open street, others dying in their houses, made it known by the stench of their rotting bodies. Consecrated churchyards did not suffice for the burial of the vast multitude of bodies, which were heaped by the hundreds in vast trenches, like goods in a ships hold and covered with a little earth." Giovanni Boccaccio How did the Black Death change life in Europe?
“ Realizing what a deadly disaster had come to them the people quickly drove the Italians from their city. However, the disease remained, and soon death was every where. Fathers abandoned their sick sons. Lawyers refused to come and make out wills for the dying. Friars and nuns were left to care for the sick, and monasteries and convents were soon deserted, as they were stricken, too. Bodies were left in empty houses, and there was no one to give them a Christian burial." Unknown
Justinian (527-565AD) <ul><li>Re-conquered parts of the Roman Empire – North Africa, Italy, Southern Spain </li></ul><ul><li>United Empire – Justinian Code, new law code, Corpus Iuris Civilis, based on Roman Law and individual rights, Greek official language </li></ul><ul><li>Beautified Constantinople – Built Hagia Sophia, government buildings, roads, walls, public baths, law courts, underground reservoirs, supported art, sculptures, mosaics, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Autocratic Rule – Became the sole ruler of the government and the Church – had absolute power </li></ul><ul><li>Theodora – Justinian’s wife – worked for peace with Persia, fought for women’s rights, built hospitals and schools for the poor </li></ul>
Economic Developments Constantinople was center for Silk Road imports and exports. Cultural Developments Eastern Orthodox Church emerged. Pope and Patriarch mutually excommunicated each other in 1054. Eastern Orthodoxy later spread to Russia and the Slavic peoples of Eastern Europe. Byzantium by 814. Post-Classical Political Developments, 600-1450. Byzantine Empire, 4th century to 1453
Political Development Off-shoot of the Roman Empire. “Eastern Roman Empire.” Centralized State: Hereditary Monarchy. Emperor Justinian, r. 527-565. Justinian’s Law Code was based on the Roman 12 Tables. Attempted to permanently recapture the Western Roman empire but was unsuccessful. Replaced Latin with Greek as official language. Empire was divided into “themes” or districts in which military leaders ruled locally and free peasants were given land in exchange for military service. Military Civil Bureaucrats Clergy Halo Byzantium during Justinian’s reign. Byzantine Empire, 4th century to 1453 Post-Classical Political Developments, 600-1450.
The first church on the site was built by the Eastern Roman Emperor Constantius, son of Emperor Constantine, who had liberated the Christian faith from centuries of persecution. At first it was known as the Great Church because it was the largest at the time. Later it became known as Holy Wisdom, a name attributed to Christ by theologians of the 4th century. Hagia Sophia or Holy Wisdom is the mother church of all Eastern Christians of the Byzantine liturgical tradition both Orthodox and Greek Catholic. The Hagia Sophia
Architecturally the grand basilica represented a major revolution in church construction in that it featured a huge dome which necessitated the implementation of new ideas in order to support the weight of this dome, a feat which had not been attempted before. The dome which became universal in Byzantine church construction represented the vault of heaven thus constituting a feature quasi-liturgical in function. In the days when there was no steel used in construction, large roofs and domes had to be supported by massive pillars and walls. The Hagia Sophia
In 1204 AD, Roman Catholic crusaders of the Fourth Crusade attacked and sacked Constantinople and the Great Church, leaving behind a legacy of bitterness among Eastern Christians which continues to this day. For more that 1000 years, Holy Wisdom served as the cathedral church of the Patriarch of Constantinople as well as the church of the Byzantine court but that function came to an end in 1453 when the Ottoman Turkish Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror seized the Imperial City and converted the Great Church into his mosque. The Hagia Sophia Initially, the Turks preserved the frescoes and mosaic figures of Christian saints which decorated the walls. However, in the 16th century, these were completely covered by plaster, since the Islamic code forbids figural representation.
It remained a mosque until 1935 when Turkey converted it into a museum. Years later the plaster which had been applied by the Muslims to cover the icons was removed revealing for the first time to modern eyes the artwork covered by the Muslims in their effort to render the structure appropriate for their own purposes. After it became a mosque, an altar (mihrap) in the east was added, since the apse should be in the direction of Mecca and the minarets were added in keeping with traditional Islamic architecture The Hagia Sophia
The Hippodrome Gladiator Fights and Chariot races were featured here. Successful Charioteers were acclaimed as heroes and honored with public statues. The Hippodrome was the heart of Constantinople's political life, as two groups, the Greens and Blues, jousted for power. Emperors had to be aware of their demands and attitudes as many riots occurred.
Art is the mirror of a culture and its world view. There is no case to which this statement more directly applies than to the art of the Islamic world. Not only does its art reflect its cultural values, but even more importantly, the way in which its adherents, the Muslims, view the spiritual realm, the universe, life, and the relationship of the parts to the whole. Islamic Art
Because of the strict injunctions against such depictions of humans or animals which might result in idol-worship, Islamic art developed a unique character, utilizing a number of primary forms: geometric, arabesque, floral, and calligraphic, which are often interwoven. From early times, Muslim art has reflected this balanced, harmonious world-view. Islamic Art
How does the artwork express the religious values of it creators?
Early Russia <ul><li>“ Two Rome’s have fallen, and a third Rome stands, and a fourth there shall not be.” </li></ul><ul><li>What were the first two Rome’s that have fallen? </li></ul><ul><li>Why does this civilization want to be compared to Rome? </li></ul>
River Network Slavs and Scandinavian Traders develop trading system throughout river network City of Kiev forms along the Dnieper River – Leads to Black Sea and trade with Byzantine Empire
Vladimir I (980-1015) 855 – First Russian King was Rurik Monarchy forms with its center at the city of Kiev Russian King, Vladimir I, converts to Christianity but did not want to be under the control of the Roman Catholic Church and the Pope Kievan Russia declined in the 12 th century due to internal problems and Mongol invasions Why did Valdimir I convert to Christianity?
Geography: Island configuration of Japan led to the development of isolated communities, Political Developments: Attempts at centralizing the Japanese state were relatively unsuccessful during the first millennium. The Japanese also attempted to fashion their bureaucracy in the image of the Chinese Confucian model. Emissaries and scholars were sent to China to study. The Rise of Feudalism: Eventually a system of feudalism developed in which a central figure, the Shogun , reigned as supreme military general and political authority over Japan. The power of the shogun was depended on the loyalties of the local daimyos and samurais . Japan 600-1000 Decentralized States
Cultural Developments: The traditional Japanese religion is Shintoism. Everything in nature possesses a spirit and natural forces govern the earth. Traditional Japanese customs combined with Buddhism produced Zen Buddhism. Contacts with China were halted during the Heian Period (794-1185) as the Japanese were encouraged to express traditional Japanese culture. Women dominated literature. The Tale of Genji was written by Lady Murasaki. Women enjoyed considerable legal and economic rights compared to later periods. Economic Development: Japan was a predominantly agrarian society with a local artisan class of weavers, carpenters, and iron workers. Most people worked on land that was owned by other people and had to pay an in-kind tax on their harvests on a yearly basis. Japan 600-1000 Decentralized States