August 28 (102)

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August 28 (102)

  1. 1. The Catholic Church would become a powerful unifying force through the Middle Ages. When the western Roman Empire collapsed, it was the Church that helped hold civilization together. But Christianity was not always welcome in the Empire -- in fact, at some points, it was even outlawed, and Christians were persecuted. Then one emperor professed Christianity, and made the religion not only acceptable, but favored. Who was this emperor? A. Augustus B. Constantine C. Diocletian
  2. 2. Porterville College Home Page
  3. 3. This time, ask your survival group if you need help!
  4. 4. An American will perhaps consider himself to be as little like an Englishman as he is like a Frenchman. But he reads Shakespeare through the medium of his own vernacular, and has to undergo the penance of a foreign tongue before he can understand Molière. He separates himself from England in politics and perhaps in affection; but he cannot separate himself from England mental culture. --Anthony Trollope, 1862 Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  5. 5. Encompass time from the collapse of the Roman Empire (ca. 420) to Renaissance (marked by beginning of Tudor dynasty in 1485) There is some continuity in the form of the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, but there is also major change over this time period. Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  6. 6. Old English, a Germanic language Invasion ca. 450 “Caedmon’s Hymn” and Beowulf Old English literature in translation Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  7. 7. Norman Invasion of 1066 Nobility spoke French Marie de France is an example Beginning of obsession (in England and elsewhere) with Arthur, across languages By Chaucer’s time, English literature begins to be accepted Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  8. 8. English begins to be accepted on par of French and Latin Chaucer, Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, Mystery and Morality Plays, Morte Darthur Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  9. 9. Rome leaves Britain (Britons) ca. 420 Years of invasions Ethelbert: First Christian King (597) “West Saxon dialect” Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  10. 10. Dark Ages (500 CE- 1000 CE)- scholars named this as a time when the forces of darkness (barbarians) overwhelmed the forces of light (Romans) Rise of influence of barbarians as Roman Emperors had granted barbarian mercenaries land with the Roman Empire in return for military service and it was these barbarians who eventually became the new rulers
  11. 11. Decline of Roman Empire Rise of Northern Europe New forms of government Heavy “Romanization” (religion, language, laws, architecture, government) Latin- “medium aevum” means “middle age” and is source of English word “medieval”
  12. 12. Period of change in Western Europe as barbarians were migrating in to areas given up by Romans As more barbarians moved westward, other tribes were forced to move Groups categorized by languages and little else Celtic: Gauls, Britons, Bretons Germanic: Goths, Frank, Vandals, Saxons Slavic: Wends
  13. 13. The Catholic Church has become an important political, economic, spiritual and cultural force in Europe The Church was granted favors by Roman emperors /kings (land, exemption from taxes, immunity in courts, positions in courts) and in return the Church would endorse kings to help secure their rule Kings looked to Church to supply educated administrators to help run kingdoms and in return kings would enforce laws that prohibited other religions
  14. 14. Monks were people who gave up worldly possessions and devote themselves to a religious life Established between 400 -700 communities called monasteries which became centers of education, literacy and learning Strict codes of monastic conduct called Rule of St. Benedict Saints- one who performs miracles that are interpreted as evidence of a special relationship with God St. Augustine- wrote “Confessions” which discussed ideas of ethics, self knowledge, and the role of free will which shaped monastic tradition and the influence of Church
  15. 15. Slaves made up of conquered peoples Some treated harshly, while other were treated fairly Rural slaves became serfs, who worked the land and provided labor for owner (in return from protection) Set up for system of feudalism
  16. 16. Increasing violence and lawless countryside Weak turn to the strong for protection, strong want something from the weak Feudalism= relationship between those ranked in a chain of association (kings, vassals, lords, knights, serfs) Feudalism worked because of the notion of mutual obligation, or voluntary co-operation from serf to noble A man’s word was the cornerstone of social life Key terms Fief = land given by a lord in return for a vassal’s military service and oath of loyalty Serfs= common peasants who worked the lords land Tithe = tax that serfs paid (tax or rent) Corvee= condition of unpaid labor by serfs (maintaining roads or ditches on a manor)
  17. 17. Effects of Crusades Guild and communes Towns, cities and manors New thinkers (Thomas Aquinas) and writers Creation of universities New art and architecture (gothic, castles) Knighthood and chivalry Courtly entertainment (fables, playwrights)
  18. 18. Black Death a devastating worldwide pandemic that first struck Europe in the mid 14th century killed about a third of Europe’s population, an estimated 34 million people.
  19. 19. Called “black death” because of striking symptom of the disease, in which sufferers' skin would blacken due to hemorrhages under the skin Spread by fleas and rats painful lymph node swellings called buboes buboes in the groin and armpits, which ooze pus and blood. damage to the skin and underlying tissue until they were covered in dark blotches Most victims died within four to seven days after infection EFFECTS Caused massive depopulation and change in social structure Weakened influence of Church Originated in Asia but was blamed on Jews and lepers
  20. 20. Roger Bacon (gunpowder) Luca Pacioli (Father of Accounting) Johannes Gutenberg (printing press) Christine de Pisan (writer); Geoffrey Chaucer (writer) Joan of Arc (Hundred Year’s War) Pope Urban II (indulgences) Pope Innocent IV and Bernard Gui (inquisitions) Parliamentary Government in England
  21. 21. Largely orally transmitted Heroic and Christian values Problems with translation Characteristics/Features: Kenning Apposition/Variation Formal Irony Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  22. 22. An old man turned ninety-eight. He won the lottery and died the next day… of chronic emphysema from inhalation of the latex particles scratched off decades’ worth of lottery tickets. A black fly in your Chardonnay… poured to celebrate the successful fumigation of your recently purchased vineyard in southern France. A no-smoking sign on your cigarette break… at the R.J. Reynolds Tobacco corporate offices in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. Meeting the man of my dreams and then meeting his beautiful wife… who happens to be the psychiatrist I recently hired in hopes of improving my luck with the opposite sex. Courtesy of http://www.collegehumor.com/article:1711139. Slide adapted from the following source: Palmer, Joy. “Introduction to Middle Ages Literature.” Slideboom, 2011. Web. 20 Aug. 2012.
  23. 23. Eighth to eleventh century Survives in West Saxon dialect Poetic contexts Scop Lost until eighteenth century Focuses on Beowulf’s three battles: Grendel, Grendel’s mother, dragon Subject is German ancestors of English (Danes and Geats) Setting
  24. 24. Watch the “Introduction to Beowulf” and take the quiz before Tuesday at 10:35 a.m. Read Beowulf pages 41-77 Practice Turnitin assignment due by Tuesday, September 2, at 10:35 a.m.

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