Unit V: Europe and Eastern
          Europe
    Chapter 34, 35, 36 Exam
           Overview
Causes of WWI

              M.A.N.I.A.
Militarism: Building of weapons and army.
Alliances: Triple Entente and Triple All...
Europe in 1914
People, Places, Actions
•Trench Warfare
•New Technology
  Flame throwers
      Tanks
    Poison Gas
     Airplanes
  Germa...
Results of World War 1
                            1919 Treaty of Versailles leads to
                           the rise ...
New Map of
     Europe!


1. Which major empires
   lost the most land?
   Why?
2. What problems could
   occur due to the...
1917 Russian Revolution

           Causes
• Weak leadership of Czar
  Nicholas II
• Bloody Sunday
• WWI – refused to pull...
People, Places, Actions

         Two Revolutions in 1917
        1. March 1917 – Provisional Government
            repla...
Results of Russian Revolution

   1924 Stalin takes power.

Stalin’s goal is to Industrialize
       the Soviet Union.

  ...
Causes World War II

 League of Nations Fails: Hitler
     violates the Treaty of
   Versailles, rebuilt his army.
League ...
Key Terms and Events of WWII
                                             D-Day          Atomic Bomb:
Pearl Harbor        ...
EFFECTS OF WWII
Creation of the United Nation: Maintain International peace and
protect Human Rights. U.N. Security Counci...
U.S. POLICIES
1. CONTAINMENT - Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and
preventing the expansion of Communism.
2. ...
THE IRON CURTAIN
1. The Soviet Union drove the Germans
     back across Eastern Europe.
  2. They occupied several countri...
The West in the 20th Century
 The Welfare State: Nationalization of Industries, provided unemployment insurance, family
 a...
Fall of Communism
                         •Due to growing sense of nationalism and desire for
                         mo...
Fall of Communism
                                  •LOW WORKER MORALE
                                  •FOOD SHORTAGES
 ...
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Europe And Eastern Europe Test Review

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Europe And Eastern Europe Test Review

  1. 1. Unit V: Europe and Eastern Europe Chapter 34, 35, 36 Exam Overview
  2. 2. Causes of WWI M.A.N.I.A. Militarism: Building of weapons and army. Alliances: Triple Entente and Triple Alliance. Nationalism: Pride and strength in a country. Imperialism: Competition for oversea colonies. Assassination: Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand (1914).
  3. 3. Europe in 1914
  4. 4. People, Places, Actions •Trench Warfare •New Technology Flame throwers Tanks Poison Gas Airplanes German U-Boats Unrestricted Submarine warfare WWI was the first Industrialized war.
  5. 5. Results of World War 1 1919 Treaty of Versailles leads to the rise of Fascism in Germany and Italy. Harsh punishment for Germany such as war reparations, demilitarize, and territorial losses League of Nations is created, members agree to defend each other. However the United States and Russia refuse to join. Austria-Hungary divides into several small states Mussolini and Hitler come to power due to weak economic and political conditions.
  6. 6. New Map of Europe! 1. Which major empires lost the most land? Why? 2. What problems could occur due to the structure of the European landscape?
  7. 7. 1917 Russian Revolution Causes • Weak leadership of Czar Nicholas II • Bloody Sunday • WWI – refused to pull out of war • Food Shortages • Inequality between the social classes • Rasputin • Rise of Intellectual dissenters (anarchists, communists)
  8. 8. People, Places, Actions Two Revolutions in 1917 1. March 1917 – Provisional Government replaces Czar but does not exit WWI 2. November 1917 – Bolsheviks Replace Provisional Government Slogan - “Peace, Bread, and Land” 3. Lenin pulls Russia out of WWI 4. Creates first communist nation, the U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union) 5. N.E.P. Lenin allows some elements of Capitalism
  9. 9. Results of Russian Revolution 1924 Stalin takes power. Stalin’s goal is to Industrialize the Soviet Union. •Collective Farms •Five Year Plans Soviet Union becomes a Superpower after WWII which starts the Cold War
  10. 10. Causes World War II League of Nations Fails: Hitler violates the Treaty of Versailles, rebuilt his army. League of Nations does nothing to condemn Hitler’s aggression. Hitler's Aggression • 1938 Hitler takes Austria • Hitler takes Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland) • Invasion of Poland, starting WWII. Appeasement: Giving into a aggressors demands in order to keep peace, Neville Chamberlain agrees to Hitler demands at the Munich Conference.
  11. 11. Key Terms and Events of WWII D-Day Atomic Bomb: Pearl Harbor Battle of Stalingrad Hiroshima and Nagasaki Allied forces United States enters the war on liberated War in the Pacific Germany Army is the pacific front France from ends defeated on the Eastern front. Nazi rule. Holocaust: Genocide of the Jews and others. Led by Hitler and fueled by anti-Semitism.
  12. 12. EFFECTS OF WWII Creation of the United Nation: Maintain International peace and protect Human Rights. U.N. Security Council, each member has veto power over peacekeeping operations. Nuremburg Trials: Nazi officers are held accountable for the Holocaust. Guilty of Crimes against Humanity. Super Powers: USA and U.S.S.R battle over the political ideas of Communism vs. Democracy. The Cold War! Atomic Age: After 1945, the atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the war in Japan.. Decolonization: European colonies received independence through both violent and non-violent means – India, Ghana, Kenya, Algeria, Turkey, etc.
  13. 13. U.S. POLICIES 1. CONTAINMENT - Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and preventing the expansion of Communism. 2. TRUMAN DOCTRINE - Monetary support given by U.S. to countries that resisted Communism. 3. MARSHALL PLAN- Post WWII assistance program, in which, the U.S. would provide, food, machines, and other materials to any country that needed it. SOVIET RESPONSE 1. BERLIN BLOCKADE & AIRLIFT 1948- Soviets closed all road and rail links to Berlin. The Western allies began a massive airlift to feed the West Berliners. •This caused the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) in 1949 2. BERLIN WALL 1961- East German government built a wall that separated East Berlin from West Berlin. Soldiers shot anyone that tried to escape East Berlin.
  14. 14. THE IRON CURTAIN 1. The Soviet Union drove the Germans back across Eastern Europe. 2. They occupied several countries along it’s western border and considered them a necessary buffer or wall of protection from the west. 3. Stalin installed Communist governments in Albania, Bulgaria, Hungary, Czechoslavakia, Romania, Poland, and Yugoslavia. 4. At the Potsdam Conference Truman pressed Stalin to allow free elections. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the 5. Early in 1946 Stalin declares that continent.” communism & capitalism could not exist in the same world. War between the U.S. & U.S.S.R. was certain. March 5, 1946
  15. 15. The West in the 20th Century The Welfare State: Nationalization of Industries, provided unemployment insurance, family assistance programs, national health care programs, state-run medical facilities – “A War on Poverty” Culture: • Consumerism – Mass Media, shopping malls, supermarkets, leisure • Art – abstract and modern art – “Nude Descending a Staircase” • Women – status and role in society changed – suffrage, birth control, abortion, more professional opportunities Conservative Movement: - Economy struggled in 1970s – Oil crisis, college protests, cost of welfare state caused reaction Led by Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher – limited power and role of government and lowered taxes – strengthened military – led to increased deficits
  16. 16. Fall of Communism •Due to growing sense of nationalism and desire for more political rights – Eastern European nations push for reforms •Russian Communist grip begins to loosen due to poor economy and global pressure. •Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost and Perestroika allow some political and economic freedoms. •Poland – Solidarity Movement led by Lech Walesa •Czechoslovakia – Velvet Revolution led by Vaclav Havel •Hungary – Revolution in 1956 led by Imre Nagy failed •East Germany – Berlin Wall removed in 1989 •Romania – Violent revolution removes and kills Dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu
  17. 17. Fall of Communism •LOW WORKER MORALE •FOOD SHORTAGES •NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC DIVERSITY •COST OF THE WAR GLOBAL PRESSURE GLASNOST PERESTROIKA New political policy by Mikhail Economic policy by Mikhail Gorbachev means “openness” Gorbachev means “restructuring” Allowed the following: Allowed the following: Free flow of ideas, no censorship Some private property Religious freedom Some small business – profits Public criticism of gov’t Some Free trade Contested elections (secret ballots) Local managers more control and Release of political prisoners authority over farms and factories Books freely printed Decentralization of economic “Socialism with a Human Face” control ATTEMPTED COUP Some high level officials (communist hard-liners) wanted Gorbachev to resign in 1991 He refused – the group staged a coup in Moscow by placing Gorbachev under house arrest and sent tanks into Moscow to seize control. Boris Yeltsin called to the people to resist the coup and gained the support of the military The Coup was foiled and the USSR soon split into 15 republics – the CIS

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