Unit V: Europe and Eastern
Chapter 34, 35, 36 Exam
Causes of WWI
Militarism: Building of weapons and army.
Alliances: Triple Entente and Triple Alliance.
Nationalism: Pride and strength in a country.
Imperialism: Competition for oversea colonies.
Assassination: Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand (1914).
People, Places, Actions
WWI was the first
Results of World War 1
1919 Treaty of Versailles leads to
the rise of Fascism in Germany and
Italy. Harsh punishment for
Germany such as war
reparations, demilitarize, and
League of Nations is created, members agree
to defend each other. However the United
States and Russia refuse to join.
Austria-Hungary divides into several small states
Mussolini and Hitler come to power due to
weak economic and political conditions.
New Map of
1. Which major empires
lost the most land?
2. What problems could
occur due to the
structure of the
1917 Russian Revolution
• Weak leadership of Czar
• Bloody Sunday
• WWI – refused to pull out of
• Food Shortages
• Inequality between the social
• Rise of Intellectual dissenters
People, Places, Actions
Two Revolutions in 1917
1. March 1917 – Provisional Government
replaces Czar but does not exit WWI
2. November 1917 – Bolsheviks Replace
Slogan - “Peace, Bread, and Land”
3. Lenin pulls Russia out of WWI
4. Creates first communist nation, the
U.S.S.R. (Soviet Union)
5. N.E.P. Lenin allows some elements of
Results of Russian Revolution
1924 Stalin takes power.
Stalin’s goal is to Industrialize
the Soviet Union.
•Five Year Plans
Soviet Union becomes a
Superpower after WWII which
starts the Cold War
Causes World War II
League of Nations Fails: Hitler
violates the Treaty of
Versailles, rebuilt his army.
League of Nations does nothing
to condemn Hitler’s aggression.
• 1938 Hitler takes Austria
• Hitler takes Czechoslovakia (Sudetenland)
• Invasion of Poland, starting WWII.
Appeasement: Giving into a
aggressors demands in order to
keep peace, Neville
Chamberlain agrees to Hitler
demands at the Munich
Key Terms and Events of WWII
D-Day Atomic Bomb:
Pearl Harbor Battle of Stalingrad Hiroshima and
enters the war on liberated War in the Pacific
Germany Army is
the pacific front France from ends
defeated on the
Eastern front. Nazi rule.
Holocaust: Genocide of the Jews and others.
Led by Hitler and fueled by anti-Semitism.
EFFECTS OF WWII
Creation of the United Nation: Maintain International peace and
protect Human Rights. U.N. Security Council, each member has
veto power over peacekeeping operations.
Nuremburg Trials: Nazi officers are held accountable
for the Holocaust. Guilty of Crimes against Humanity.
USA and U.S.S.R battle over the political ideas of
Communism vs. Democracy. The Cold War!
Atomic Age: After 1945, the atomic bombs were
dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ending the war
Decolonization: European colonies received independence
through both violent and non-violent means –
India, Ghana, Kenya, Algeria, Turkey, etc.
1. CONTAINMENT - Policy directed at blocking Soviet influence and
preventing the expansion of Communism.
2. TRUMAN DOCTRINE - Monetary support given by U.S. to countries that
3. MARSHALL PLAN- Post WWII assistance program, in which, the U.S.
would provide, food, machines, and other materials to any country that
1. BERLIN BLOCKADE & AIRLIFT 1948- Soviets closed all road and
rail links to Berlin. The Western allies began a massive airlift to feed the
•This caused the creation of the Federal Republic of
Germany (West Germany) in 1949
2. BERLIN WALL 1961- East German
government built a wall that separated East Berlin
from West Berlin. Soldiers shot anyone that tried to
escape East Berlin.
THE IRON CURTAIN
1. The Soviet Union drove the Germans
back across Eastern Europe.
2. They occupied several countries
along it’s western border and
considered them a necessary buffer or
wall of protection from the west.
3. Stalin installed Communist
governments in Albania, Bulgaria,
Hungary, Czechoslavakia, Romania,
Poland, and Yugoslavia.
4. At the Potsdam Conference Truman
pressed Stalin to allow free elections. “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the
Adriatic an iron curtain has descended across the
5. Early in 1946 Stalin declares that continent.”
communism & capitalism could not
exist in the same world. War between
the U.S. & U.S.S.R. was certain. March 5, 1946
The West in the 20th Century
The Welfare State: Nationalization of Industries, provided unemployment insurance, family
assistance programs, national health care programs, state-run medical facilities – “A War on
• Consumerism – Mass Media, shopping
malls, supermarkets, leisure
• Art – abstract and modern art – “Nude Descending a
• Women – status and role in society changed –
suffrage, birth control, abortion, more professional
Conservative Movement: - Economy struggled in 1970s –
Oil crisis, college protests, cost of welfare state caused
Led by Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher – limited
power and role of government and lowered taxes –
strengthened military – led to increased deficits
Fall of Communism
•Due to growing sense of nationalism and desire for
more political rights – Eastern European nations push
•Russian Communist grip begins to loosen due to poor
economy and global pressure.
•Mikhail Gorbachev’s policies of Glasnost and
Perestroika allow some political and economic
•Poland – Solidarity Movement led by
•Czechoslovakia – Velvet Revolution led
by Vaclav Havel
•Hungary – Revolution in 1956 led by
Imre Nagy failed
•East Germany – Berlin Wall removed in
•Romania – Violent revolution removes
and kills Dictator Nicolae Ceauşescu
Fall of Communism
•LOW WORKER MORALE
•NATIONALISM AND ETHNIC DIVERSITY
•COST OF THE WAR GLOBAL PRESSURE
New political policy by Mikhail Economic policy by Mikhail
Gorbachev means “openness” Gorbachev means “restructuring”
Allowed the following: Allowed the following:
Free flow of ideas, no censorship Some private property
Religious freedom Some small business – profits
Public criticism of gov’t Some Free trade
Contested elections (secret ballots) Local managers more control and
Release of political prisoners authority over farms and factories
Books freely printed
Decentralization of economic
“Socialism with a Human Face” control
Some high level officials (communist hard-liners) wanted Gorbachev to resign in 1991
He refused – the group staged a coup in Moscow by placing Gorbachev under house arrest and sent
tanks into Moscow to seize control.
Boris Yeltsin called to the people to resist the coup and gained the support of the military
The Coup was foiled and the USSR soon split into 15 republics – the CIS