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Computer Currents:  From Calculation to Communication Chapter  1
Topics <ul><li>Living without Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Computers in Perspective: An Evolving Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Com...
Living Without Computers What would we do without computers in our personal and professional lives?
Information-Processing Machine Input  documents Process data Print  materials
The First Real Computers Howard Aiken John Atanasoff The scientists and mathematicians who designed and built the first wo...
Konrad Zuse In 1939, Zuse built the first programmable, general-purpose digital computer. His computer was built from elec...
John Atanasoff Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)—the first electronic digital computer Built in 1939, this computer used vacu...
Howard Aiken In 1944, he completed the Mark I, the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It was built with elec...
John Mauchly and Presper Eckert In 1945, Mauchly and Eckert built the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer)...
Evolution and Acceleration <ul><li>Hardware changes are defined by generations. </li></ul><ul><li>First Generation </li></...
First-Generation Computers <ul><li>1930s – 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes used as switches </li></ul><ul><li>Large c...
Second-Generation Computers <ul><li>1950s – mid-1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors used as switches </li></ul><ul><li>Sma...
Third-Generation Computers <ul><li>Late 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of transistors packed into a single  integrated c...
Fourth-Generation Computers <ul><li>1970s to present </li></ul><ul><li>Complete computer on a chip </li></ul><ul><li>Radic...
A Brief Taxonomy <ul><li>Mainframes  </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations  </li></ul><ul><li>Pe...
Multi-User Computers <ul><li>Supercomputers… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the fastest, most powerful computers </li></ul></ul>
Multi-User Computers <ul><li>Mainframes  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many users can access computer resources simultaneously </l...
Single-User Computers <ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-end desktop computer   Servers provide software and ...
Single-User Computers <ul><li>Personal Computers (PC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to serving  one user </li></ul></ul>...
Portable Computers <ul><li>Laptop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lightweight, battery-operated computers with flat screens,  </li><...
Special-Purpose Computers <ul><li>Special-Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often attached to sensors to measure    and/or con...
Computer Connections:  The Network Revolution <ul><li>Local Area Networks ( LAN ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resource shari...
The Internet Explosion <ul><li>A network of networks </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web for usability </li></ul><ul><li>Elec...
World Wide Web <ul><li>Web browsers are portals into the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages are interlinked documents </li></...
Electronic Mail (e-mail) <ul><li>The primary use of the Internet today is for communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail...
Explosive Internet Growth <ul><li>1994? 3 million people connected </li></ul><ul><li>Today? Hundreds of millions </li></ul...
Impact of the Internet <ul><li>Companies are replacing mainframe and PC systems with Intranets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Priva...
Internet Connections <ul><li>Direct connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One that’s hard wired through a business, school or g...
Living with Computers <ul><li>What do you really need to know about computers? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the ba...
Concepts of hardware and software
Software Applications <ul><ul><li>Word processing and desktop publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets and datab...
<ul><ul><li>Threat to personal privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards of high-tech crime & keeping data secure </li></...
 
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  1. 1. Computer Currents: From Calculation to Communication Chapter 1
  2. 2. Topics <ul><li>Living without Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Computers in Perspective: An Evolving Idea </li></ul><ul><li>Computers Today: A Brief Taxonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Computer Connections: The Internet Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Living with Computers </li></ul>Topics
  3. 3. Living Without Computers What would we do without computers in our personal and professional lives?
  4. 4. Information-Processing Machine Input documents Process data Print materials
  5. 5. The First Real Computers Howard Aiken John Atanasoff The scientists and mathematicians who designed and built the first working computers: Konrad Zuse John Mauchly & J. Presper Eckert
  6. 6. Konrad Zuse In 1939, Zuse built the first programmable, general-purpose digital computer. His computer was built from electric relays to automate engineering calculations. “ I was too lazy to calculate and so I invented the computer.”
  7. 7. John Atanasoff Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC)—the first electronic digital computer Built in 1939, this computer used vacuum tubes and was based on binary arithmetic. It was never a fully operational product.
  8. 8. Howard Aiken In 1944, he completed the Mark I, the largest electromechanical calculator ever built. It was built with electromechanical relays and followed instructions punched in paper tape.
  9. 9. John Mauchly and Presper Eckert In 1945, Mauchly and Eckert built the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). The ENIAC was built with 18,000 vacuum tubes that failed on an average of once every seven minutes. After the war, they created the Univac I - the first general-purpose commercial computer.
  10. 10. Evolution and Acceleration <ul><li>Hardware changes are defined by generations. </li></ul><ul><li>First Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Second Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transistors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Third Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated circuits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fourth Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microprocessor </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. First-Generation Computers <ul><li>1930s – 1940s </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes used as switches </li></ul><ul><li>Large computers </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely slow by today’s standards </li></ul><ul><li>Prone to frequent failure </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the ABC, Mark I, ENIAC, UNIVAC, and others of similar design </li></ul>
  12. 12. Second-Generation Computers <ul><li>1950s – mid-1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Transistors used as switches </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller than vacuum-tube-built computers </li></ul><ul><li>As much as a thousand times faster than first-generation computers </li></ul><ul><li>More reliable and less expensive </li></ul>
  13. 13. Third-Generation Computers <ul><li>Late 1960s </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of transistors packed into a single integrated circuit on a silicon chip </li></ul><ul><li>Dramatic reduction in size and cost </li></ul><ul><li>Significant increases in reliability, speed, and efficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Mass production techniques to manufacture chips inexpensively </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fourth-Generation Computers <ul><li>1970s to present </li></ul><ul><li>Complete computer on a chip </li></ul><ul><li>Radical change in the appearance, capability and availability of computers </li></ul>
  15. 15. A Brief Taxonomy <ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Portable Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded Computers </li></ul><ul><li>Special-Purpose Computers </li></ul>
  16. 16. Multi-User Computers <ul><li>Supercomputers… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the fastest, most powerful computers </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Multi-User Computers <ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many users can access computer resources simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>smaller and less expensive than mainframes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Single-User Computers <ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-end desktop computer Servers provide software and other resources to computers over a network </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Single-User Computers <ul><li>Personal Computers (PC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dedicated to serving one user </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computing power for word processing, accounting and other common applications </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Portable Computers <ul><li>Laptop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lightweight, battery-operated computers with flat screens, </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hand-held or Palmtop </li></ul><ul><ul><li>computers designed for communications and computing </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Special-Purpose Computers <ul><li>Special-Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>often attached to sensors to measure and/or control the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>programs etched in silicon so they can’t be altered (firmware) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Embedded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e nhance consumer goods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control a variety of hardware devices, including robots </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Computer Connections: The Network Revolution <ul><li>Local Area Networks ( LAN ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resource sharing allow communication between users (in the same building or cluster of buildings) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wide Area Networks ( WAN ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>resource sharing allow communication between users (across the country or the world) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ There are three kinds of death…there’s heart death, there’s brain death, and there’s being off the network.” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. The Internet Explosion <ul><li>A network of networks </li></ul><ul><li>World Wide Web for usability </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic mail </li></ul><ul><li>Multimedia content </li></ul><ul><li>Self-publishing </li></ul><ul><li>On-line transactions </li></ul><ul><li>Intranets </li></ul><ul><li>Network computers </li></ul>
  24. 24. World Wide Web <ul><li>Web browsers are portals into the Web </li></ul><ul><li>Web pages are interlinked documents </li></ul><ul><li>Web sites are web pages grouped together </li></ul>
  25. 25. Electronic Mail (e-mail) <ul><li>The primary use of the Internet today is for communications: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E-mail is easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messaging is quick </li></ul></ul>“ The great success of the Internet is not technical, but its human impact” Dave Clark
  26. 26. Explosive Internet Growth <ul><li>1994? 3 million people connected </li></ul><ul><li>Today? Hundreds of millions </li></ul><ul><li>The United States leads the world in Internet activity </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately 1/3 of U.S. households connected in 1999 </li></ul><ul><li>By 2003, twice that number is expected to be connected </li></ul>
  27. 27. Impact of the Internet <ul><li>Companies are replacing mainframe and PC systems with Intranets </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Private intra-organizational networks that allow people to transmit, share and store information </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers may be used mostly as gateways to intranets and the Internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These network computers cost less than typical PCs because they contain less hardware and are easier to maintain (software stored on a central server) </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Internet Connections <ul><li>Direct connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One that’s hard wired through a business, school or government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Indirect connection </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cable TV connection </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless connection </li></ul>
  29. 29. Living with Computers <ul><li>What do you really need to know about computers? </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the basic computer concepts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Learn how to use software applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware of the social and ethical issues </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Concepts of hardware and software
  31. 31. Software Applications <ul><ul><li>Word processing and desktop publishing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spreadsheets and databases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer graphics, multimedia and hypermedia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telecommunication and networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Artificial intelligence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>General problem-solving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Programming languages </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><ul><li>Threat to personal privacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hazards of high-tech crime & keeping data secure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risks of computer system failures </li></ul></ul>Social and Ethical Issues <ul><ul><li>Threat of automation and dehumanization of work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse of information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Over dependence on complex technology </li></ul></ul>“ True computer literacy is not just knowing how to make use of computers and computational ideas . It is knowing when it is appropriate to do so.” Seymour Papert
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