History Of Computers


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History Of Computers

  1. 2. Computers In Society <ul><li>More impact than any other invention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changed work and leisure activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used by all demographic groups </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers are important because: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide information to users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information is critical to our society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Managing information is difficult </li></ul></ul>
  2. 3. Computers In Society <ul><li>Computers at home </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many homes have multiple computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Most American homes have Internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers are used for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entertainment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 4. Computers In Society <ul><li>Computers in education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer literacy required at all levels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers in small business </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes businesses more profitable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows owners to manage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computers in industry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Computers are used to design products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly lines are automated </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Computers In Society <ul><li>Computers in government </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Necessary to track data for population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Police officers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tax calculation and collection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Governments were the first computer users </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. Computers In Society <ul><li>Computers in health care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolutionized health care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New treatments possible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling of patients has improved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of medicine is safer </li></ul></ul>
  6. 7. Computers For Individual Use <ul><li>Desktop computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most common type of computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sits on the desk or floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performs a variety of tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Workstations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized for science or graphics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More powerful than a desktop </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Computers For Individual Use <ul><li>Notebook computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small portable computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Weighs between 3 and 8 pounds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>About 8 ½ by 11 inches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically as powerful as a desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can include a docking station </li></ul></ul>
  8. 9. Computers For Individual Use <ul><li>Tablet computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Newest development in portable computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Input is through a pen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Run specialized versions of office products </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>Handheld computers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Very small computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Digital Assistants (PDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note taking or contact management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data can synchronize with a desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Smart phones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid of cell phone and PDA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web surfing, e-mail access </li></ul></ul>Computers For Individual Use
  10. 11. Computers For Organizations <ul><li>Network servers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centralized computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All other computers connect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides access to network resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple servers are called server farms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often simply a powerful desktop </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Computers For Organizations <ul><li>Mainframes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in large organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle thousands of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users access through a terminal </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Computers For Organizations <ul><li>Minicomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Called midrange computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power between mainframe and desktop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle hundreds of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used in smaller organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Users access through a terminal </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. Computers For Organizations <ul><li>Supercomputers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The most powerful computers made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle large and complex calculations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process trillions of operations per second </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in research organizations </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. NEED FOR COMPUTERS <ul><li>Basic ‘Arithmetic Functions’. </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Data. </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Data. </li></ul>
  16. 17. GENESIS OF THE COMPUTERS <ul><li>1. Earliest Computer – (Abacus) </li></ul><ul><li>used for addition and subtraction. </li></ul><ul><li>2. These are analog computers which have been replaced in modern times by pocket calculators. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Contd… <ul><li>8. 1939 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The first semi-electronic digital computing device is constructed by John Atanassoff. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;Mark I&quot; Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator , the first fully automatic calculator, is begun at Harvard by mathematician Howard Aiken. Its designed purpose was to generate ballistic tables for Navy artillery. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Contd… <ul><li>10. Controlled Calculator or Harvard Mark I (1944)-first information- processing machine </li></ul><ul><li>An electromechanical computer with 760,000 wheels, 500 miles of wire, and a panel 51 ft long and 8ft high </li></ul>
  19. 20. GENERATION OF COMPUTERS <ul><li>First Generation Computers: (1950-1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Second Generation Computers:(1959-1969) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Generation Computers(1969-1977) </li></ul><ul><li>Fourth Generation Computers(1977-Present) </li></ul><ul><li>Fifth Generation Computers (Yet to come) </li></ul>
  20. 21. COMPUTER NETWORK <ul><li>The idea of computer networking started in the1960s when time-sharing services were first available to the public. Computer networking has been developed at three levels: </li></ul><ul><li>Local area network (LAN) that interconnect computers located within a relative small area such as a college campus </li></ul><ul><li>metropolitan area network (MAN) representing LAN technologies optimized for a metropolitan area such as a city </li></ul><ul><li>wide area network (WAN) providing communication services over several kilometres, across the nation, or around the globe </li></ul>
  21. 22. CONTD… <ul><li>ISDN : Came into existence in1970’s : regarded as an all-purpose digital network in that it will provide an integrated access that will support a wide variety of applications in a flexible and cost-effective manner. ISDN-Integrated service digital network </li></ul>
  22. 23. Robotics And Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>“ A robot is a reprogrammable , multifunctional manipulator designed to perform functions ordinarily ascribed to human beings” </li></ul><ul><li>Robot age began in 1954 when George C.Devol, who is regarded as the &quot;father of robot,&quot; patented the first manipulator with a playback memory. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1969 and 1970,researchers at Stanford Research Institute (SRI) produced a mobile robot, known as Shakey, which had some vision capability </li></ul>
  23. 24. Contd… <ul><li>By the year 1978,there were about 2,500 industrial robots in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>University1980 witnessed the establishment of the largest university laboratory on robotics at Carnegie Mellon. </li></ul>
  24. 25. FIRST GENERATION COMPUTERS(1941-1956) <ul><li>Operating instructions built with specific task in mind </li></ul><ul><li>Only machine language possible </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty and malfunctions </li></ul><ul><li>Vacuum tubes and magnetic drums </li></ul>
  25. 26. EXAMPLES OF 1 ST GEN <ul><li>ENIAC -Electronic Numerical Integrator and computer </li></ul><ul><li>University of Pennsylvania and The US Government </li></ul><ul><li>John Presper Eckert and John W Mauchly-general purpose computer </li></ul><ul><li>18,000 vacuum tubes, 7000 resistors </li></ul>
  26. 27. Contd.. <ul><li>EDVAC- Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Stored programme and data </li></ul><ul><li>Von Neumann </li></ul><ul><li>Single source control </li></ul>
  27. 28. Contd… <ul><li>UNIVAC I- Universal Automatic Computer </li></ul><ul><li>Remington Rand </li></ul><ul><li>US Census Bureau and General Electric </li></ul><ul><li>The amazing prediction! </li></ul>
  28. 29. SECOND GENERATION COMPUTERS (1956-1963) <ul><li>Invention of transistors </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from vacuum </li></ul><ul><li>Large scale machines made-atomic energy labs </li></ul><ul><li>Machine language replaced </li></ul><ul><li>Assembly vs binary </li></ul>
  29. 30. contd <ul><li>Showed modern day comp characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Modern day utilities </li></ul><ul><li>Financial information processed </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions stored in memory </li></ul><ul><li>COBOL and FORTRAN were used (still in use for some applications) </li></ul>
  30. 31. THIRD GENERATION COMPUTERS(1964-1971) <ul><li>Faults of the transistor </li></ul><ul><li>IC (Integrated Circuit) -1958-Jack Kilby </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic components combined into silicon chip- quartz </li></ul><ul><li>Advancement-more components </li></ul><ul><li>Operating systems advantageous </li></ul><ul><li>Memory monitoring </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) is the world's first electronic computer </li></ul>
  33. 34. BRIEF HISTORY <ul><li>In 1946, John Mauchly and J Presper </li></ul><ul><li>Eckert developed the ENIAC I </li></ul><ul><li>( E lectrical N umerical I ntegrator A nd </li></ul><ul><li>C alculator). </li></ul>
  34. 35. Contd… <ul><li>It was a war time effort by the University of Pensylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering for the U.S Army's Ballistics Reseach Lab at Aberdeen Maryland . </li></ul>
  35. 36. Contd… <ul><ul><li>The U.S. military sponsored their research; they needed a calculating device for writing artillery-firing tables (the settings used for different weapons under varied conditions for target accuracy). </li></ul></ul>
  36. 37. PHYSICAL FEATURES <ul><li>It spanned 150 feet in width with twenty banks of flashing lights indicating the results of its computations. </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed 30 tons, consumed 160 kilowatts of </li></ul><ul><li>electrical power </li></ul>
  37. 38. Contd…. <ul><li>The ENIAC contained 17,468 vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 resistors, 10,000 capacitors, 1,500 relays, 6,000 manual switches and 5 million soldered joints. </li></ul>
  38. 39. PERFORMANCE <ul><li>ENIAC could perform 5,000 additions, 357 multiplications or 38 divisions. </li></ul><ul><li>The use of vacuum tubes instead of switches and relays created the increase in speed </li></ul>
  39. 40. Contd…. <ul><li>It was a 4 digit decimal arithmetic unit based on vacuum tubes. </li></ul><ul><li>It could store 4 digits in memory (2 digits each on the left and right). </li></ul><ul><li>Add and subtract 2 digits + 2 digits, perform transfer in 200É sec, and display results or store them in memory. </li></ul>
  40. 41. LIMITATIONS <ul><li>It was unable to store program. </li></ul><ul><li>It had to be manually wired to execute </li></ul><ul><li>a particular program . </li></ul><ul><li>It could not be reprogrammed easily </li></ul>
  41. 42. <ul><li>EDSAC contained 3,000 vacuum tubes and used mercury delay lines for memory. Programs were input using paper tape and output results were passed to a teleprinter. Additionally, EDSAC is credited as using one of the first assemblers called &quot;Initial Orders,&quot; which allowed it to be programmed symbolically instead of using machine code. a </li></ul>
  42. 43. it seemed obvious that there were a few large defects. The most significant one was how long it would take to reprogram it. Previously, mechanical computers had been programmed with cards or punched tape, but the Eniac would operate too fast for that to be feasible, so there wasn’t any apparent alternative to internal programming- where a programmer would have to go rewire things to change the program. This could take hours or even days for a new program to be ‘written
  43. 44. <ul><li>Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer, or EDVAC </li></ul>
  44. 45. <ul><li>The actual ENIAC Type Arithmetic System and binary vacuum tube electronic computer are currently preserved in the Special Materials Room of the Faculty of Engineering of Osaka University. </li></ul>
  45. 46. <ul><li>The Moore School computer nonetheless provided a crucial step in a progression of technological advances; it also served to convince military scientists and technical experts of the value and practicability of electronic computation. The resulting enthusiasm was compounded by the advent of the Cold War; </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>The rate of change in artillery designs and the changing patterns of warfare created demands that exceeded their computational capacity. At any other time, the ideas worked out by John Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert--only 32 and 23 years old at the time that they met--would have been dismissed as impractical. Under other circumstances, their ideas would have been rejected for the simple reason that the ENIAC would cost too much to build </li></ul>
  47. 48. Supercomputers
  48. 50. History <ul><li>Designed by Ceymour Cray for CDC (1960). </li></ul><ul><li>Left CDC to form a new company; Cray research. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured supercomputers with new designs and became the top spot in the market (1985 – 90). </li></ul><ul><li>Today the pioneers in this field are IBM and HP. </li></ul>
  49. 51. Processors <ul><li>Scalar processors (before 1985) </li></ul><ul><li>Vector processors (1985 – 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Parallel processing (1990 onwards) </li></ul>
  50. 52. Classifications <ul><li>Specific purpose </li></ul><ul><li>General purpose </li></ul>
  51. 53. Challenges <ul><li>Costly </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from dust </li></ul><ul><li>Needs large storage capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Produces large amount of heat </li></ul><ul><li>Protection from external heat </li></ul><ul><li>Huge machine </li></ul>
  52. 54. Uses <ul><li>Weather forecasting </li></ul><ul><li>Military purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Molecular modeling </li></ul><ul><li>Nuclear research </li></ul><ul><li>Physical simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific research </li></ul>
  53. 56. Future computers <ul><li>What will computers be like in the future? </li></ul><ul><li>The computers of tomorrow won’t be on top of desks and won’t have a monitor, keyboard and case. They may look like a pen ,box, sun glasses etc. </li></ul><ul><li>The near future, crystal holographic memory is coming on line at MCC. </li></ul><ul><li>Computers may be in a 2 or 3 part unit. Stationary semi-stationary and mobile. </li></ul>
  54. 57. How will we communicate with future computers? <ul><li>Get rid of keyboards </li></ul><ul><li>We don’t have to use our keyboard instead just sit before the monitor and tell the password or just speak to your monitor. That will light up your files on the internet. Our monitor will recognize our voice. </li></ul>
  55. 58. How will the future computers look like ?
  56. 59. Some looks like a pen
  57. 60. It produces both the monitor as well as the key board on flat surfaces from where you can just carry out the normal operations .
  58. 61. Some computers look like boxes in which laser beams produces on the flat surface from where you can do your operations.
  59. 62. THANK YOU