Adaptations of marine organisms

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Adaptations of marine organisms

  1. 1. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Adaptations of Marine Organisms The marine environmentis more stable than land. Organisms in the oceanare less able to withstandenvironmental changes.
  2. 2. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Adaptations of Marine Organisms Physical support Buoyancy How to resist sinking Different supportstructures in cold(fewer) rather thanwarm (moreappendages) seawater Smaller size
  3. 3. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Adaptations of Marine Organisms High surface area tovolume ratio Unusual appendages toincrease surface area Oil in micro-organismsto increase buoyancy
  4. 4. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Viscosity and Streamlining Adaptations Streamliningimportant for largerorganisms Less resistance to fluidflow Flattened body Tapering back end
  5. 5. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Temperature and Marine Life Narrow range of temperature in oceans Smaller variations (daily, seasonally, annually) Deep ocean is nearly isothermal
  6. 6. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Ocean Temperature More stable than land for four reasons: Higher heat capacity of water Ocean warming reduced by evaporation Solar radiation penetrates deeply into ocean layers Ocean mixing
  7. 7. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Cold vs. Warm Water Species Smaller in cooler seawater More appendages in warmer seawater Tropical organisms grow faster, live shorter, reproducemore often More species in warmer seawater More biomass in cooler seawater (upwelling)
  8. 8. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Temperature and Marine Organisms Stenothermal Organisms withstand small variation in temperature Typically live in open ocean Eurythermal Organisms withstand large variation in temperature Typically live in coastal waters
  9. 9. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Salinity and Marine Organisms Stenohaline Organisms withstand only small variation in salinity Typically live in open ocean Euryhaline Organisms withstand large variation in salinity Typically live in coastal waters, e.g., estuaries
  10. 10. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.Marine vs. Freshwater Fish

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