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Claasification of zooplankton and Benthos

Gives an overall idea about the classification of Zooplankton and Benthos, under the different category...

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Claasification of zooplankton and Benthos

  1. 1. By G.Kantharajan AEM-PA6-01 KANTHARAJAN G AEM-PA6-01 ICAR-CIFE
  2. 2. ‘’Floating or weakly swimming animals that rely on water currents to move any great distance’’ Greek words: "zoon -animal", "planktos -drifter" Zooplankton
  3. 3. IS it??? Without environmental factors which keep reproduction of some species of zooplankton (such as Filinia) under control, entire world would be covered with 3-feet-thick layer of zooplankton in 130 days. (
  4. 4. 1 st size classification of zooplankton was given by (schutt 1892) CATEGORY SIZE RANGE DESCRIPTION Femtoplankton 0.02-0.20 um marine viruses Picoplankton 0.2-2 um small eukaryotic protists; bacteria; Chrysophyta Nano plankton 2-20 um Heterotrophic nanoflagellates feeding on bacteria Microplankton 20-200 um Protozoans like ciliates Mesoplankton 0.2-20 mm Metazoans (Copepod, Medusa etc..) Macroplankton 20-200 mm Members of hydromedusae, mysids, Siphonophores, scyphomedusae, ctenophores, eel larvae Megaplankton > 200 mm (almost 8 inches) Metazoans (Jelly fish) Classification based on size
  5. 5. Based on developmental stages Meroplankton only partially planktonic life cycle (eg) crab zoea, snail veliger, Bipinnaria of starfish etc… Holoplankton remain plankton for their entire life cycle (eg) pteropods , chaetognaths, siphonophores, and copepods.
  6. 6. Phylum Sub groups Examples Protozoa Dinoflagellates Noctiluca Foraminifera Globigerina Radiolaria Radiolaria Ciliates Favella Cnidaria Medusae Aruelia Siphanophores Pyrosoma Ctenophora Pleurobrachia Chaetognatha Sagitta Annelida Tomopteris Mollusca Limacina Clione Arthropoda Cladocera Penilia avirostris Copepods Calanus sp. Euphausids Euphausia superpa Chordata Appendicularia Oikopleura dioica Salps Salpa Taxonomic groups of some marine holo zooplankton
  7. 7. Nanoplanktonic Flagellates Characterized by either a long tail used for swimming (flagellates) OR by hair-like structures called cilia (Ciliates Cnidaria contains the colonial siphonophores and the scyphozoans—also known as the true jellyfish Rotifers  Most are non-motile, about 100 species are holoplanktonic.  Rotifers eat bacteria, detritus, other rotifers, algae or protozoa.  Rotifers are highly efficient reproducers
  8. 8. Chaetognatha  Most macrozooplankton are copepods found in marine and freshwater ecosystems.  Swim using an antenna and frontal structures • Arrowwormsare mostly holoplanktonicand are abundant worldwide. • These transparent wormsare approximately3 cm long and have fins on the sidesof their bodies. Marine Gastropods Copepods larvae of benthic molluscs usually found in coastal waters including heteropods or pteropods.
  9. 9. Polychaeta class of annelid worms, generally marine. Each body segment has a pair of fleshy protrusions called parapodia that bear many bristles, called chaetae, which are made of chitin Cladocerans planktonic crustaceans found in coastal waters; swim using second antenna Insect Larvae larvae of the midge Chaoborus is the only widely known insect larvae classified as plankton.
  10. 10. Tunicates  classes Appendicularia and Thaliasia. Both are filter feeders  Appendicularia consumes small food particles using a mucous filter.  Other types of tunicates are benthic and are only planktonic during their larval stages  Classified under Euphausids  found all over the world.  can be 3 cm large and are an important source of food for many types of whales.  Serves as an indicator organism for the presence of baleen whales in the polar waters. krill
  11. 11. All the organisms living or inhabiting in the bottom regions of the aquatic environment are termed benthos. Macro benthos are organisms that are larger than 1 mm E.g. oysters, starfish, lobsters, sea urchins, Meio benthos are between 0.1 and 1 mm E.g. ciliates, annelids Micro benthos are very tiny organisms. They are smaller than 0.1 mm E.g. bacteria and ciliates BENTHOS CLASSIFICATION BASED ON SIZE…..
  12. 12. Endobenthic organisms are the meiofaunal sized organisms which move within the sediment by displacing particles eg. Sand dollar Mesobenthic organisms are the meiofaunal organisms living and moving within the interstitial spaces of the grains. eg,. Sea cucumber Epibenthic organisms are those that living at the sediment-water interface Eg. Rock Cod CLASSIFICATION BASED ON LOCATION…..
  13. 13. Based on the mode of life Epifaunal organisms : animals which live on the substratum. Infaunal organisms : are those that animals live into the substratum. Burrowers : Organisms that penetrate or burrow into the unconsolidated bottom sediments are called burrowers. Borers : organisms those that penetrate or bore the hard rock or substrate materials are called borers. Based on mobility 1. Sessile benthos - do not have any mobility, attached or fixed with the substratum - rely on currents or other mechanisms to bring food to them. E.g. enthic algae, sea grasses ,corals 2. Vagrant benthos - are those that have locomotory powers and either they can move rapidly or slowly. E.g. Only animals are included under this category.
  14. 14. Benthic plants
  15. 15. zoo benthos Arthropods : The crabs and lobsters are the largest and fastest of the vagrant benthos. In addition, they have some swimming ability, using either their tails and/or specially adapted legs. Echinoderms : They have numerous appendages in the form of sucker feet or spines that are used for locomotion. The sea urchins live on hard substrates where they feed on debris. Sand dollars have the poorest mobility but they can move slowly by the whisker-like feet that surround their body. Sedentary or Vagrant epifauna: They may live on rigid substrate, firm sand or soft mud. While some move very slowly, others move very quickly. Foraminifera: less than a millimetre in dia with different shaped tests and most of which are multi-chambered Shelled invertebrates
  16. 16. Sessile epifauna Many organisms are attached to the substrate throughout their maturity and have no mobility at all. These include, Brachiopods: attach with a stem like foot that extends from near the hinge line that holds the shells together. Mussels are about the same size and they attach themselves to a hard surface with strong thread like structures, called byssus threads which develop at the hinge line
  17. 17. INFAUNAL ORGANISMS  includes various meiofaunal and macro fauna such as snails, clams, worms, sea urchins, and crustaceans.  Some groups are entirely infaunal, tusk shells two different models of life 1. Some graze or plow through the sediment (sediment destabilizers) 2. others construct extensive burrow complexes that they occupy and in which they move about (sediment stabilizers)
  18. 18. Nekton vs Plankton vs Benthos o Nekton live throughout the water column whereas plankton live closer to the water surface. o Unlike nekton and planktons, benthos linked to the ocean floor. o Unlike the planktons and benthos, nekton can propel themselves either by swimming or other means. o Many planktons are microscopic or small animals, when compared to the other two types. o Some benthos are free living, while others live attached to the seabed. However, all the nekton are free living animals.
  19. 19. Reference   Lalli, C. and Parsons, T.R., 1997. Biological oceanography: an introduction. Butterworth-Heinemann.   Schütt, F., 1892. aus: Biological Oceanography, An Early History, 1870-1960.