Water and Seawater: Pycnocline, Thermocline, Desalination, & Light transmission

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Water and Seawater: Pycnocline, Thermocline, Desalination, & Light transmission

  1. 1.  Pycnocline – abrupt change of density with depth Thermocline – abrupt change of temperature with depth © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2. Three distinct water masses based on density: Mixed surface layer – above thermocline Upper water – thermocline and pycnocline Deep water – below thermocline to ocean floor High latitude oceans – thermocline and pycnocline rarely develop  Isothermal  Isopycnal © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. Removing salt from seawater Distillation  Most common process  Water boiled and condensed  Solar distillation in arid climates Electrolysis  Electrode-containing freshwater  Membrane between fresh and salt water tanks © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4.  Reverse osmosis  Salt water forced through membrane into fresh water Freeze separation  Water frozen and thawed multiple times © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5.  Visible light of the electromagnetic spectrum  Blue (short) wavelengths penetrate deepest  Longer wavelengths (red, orange) absorbed first  Not in notes: write out – Light transmission depends on: a. Dust and cloud cover. b. Angle of the sun above the horizon. c. The smoothness or roughness of the sea. d. The amount of suspended material in the water.© 2011 PearsonEducation, Inc.
  6. 6. © 2011 PearsonEducation, Inc.
  7. 7.  Color of ocean ranges from deep blue to yellow-green  Factors  Turbidity from runoff  Photosynthetic pigment (chlorophyll)  Secchi Disk – measures water transparency© 2011 PearsonEducation, Inc.

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