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Water and Seawater


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Water and Seawater

  1. 1. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2.  Water has many unique thermal and dissolving properties. Seawater is mostly water molecules but has dissolved substances. Ocean is layered by salinity and density differences. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3.  Atoms – building blocks of all matter Subatomic particles  Protons  Neutrons  Electrons Number of protons distinguishes chemical elements © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4.  Strong covalent bonds between one hydrogen (H) and two oxygen (O) atoms Both H atoms on same side of O atom Dipolar - The center of the positive charge is near the surface of the molecule. The water molecule is said to be dipolar because the positive and negative charge centers are at different locations © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5.  Polarity means small negative charge at O end Small positive charge at H end Attraction between positive and negative ends of water molecules to each other or other ions © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6.  Hydrogen bonds are weaker than covalent bonds but still strong enough to result in:  High water surface tension  High solubility of chemical compounds in water  Unusual thermal properties of water  Unusual density of water © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7.  Water molecules stick to other polar molecules. Electrostatic attraction produces ionic bond. Water can dissolve almost anything. Hydration © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8.  Water is solid, liquid, and gas at Earth’s surface. Water influences Earth’s heat budget. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10.  Energy of moving molecules Calorie is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 C. Temperature is a measurement of average kinetic energy (movement of molecules). © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11.  Freezing point = melting point: 0 C (32 F) Boiling point = condensation point: 100 C (212 F) Freezing and boiling points of water unusually high © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12. • Heat Capacity – amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of any substance by 1 C• Water has a high heat capacity – can take in or lose much heat without changing temperature• Example: Sea breezes and land breezes• Specific Heat – heat capacity per unit mass © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13.  Heat absorbed or radiated during a change of phase at a constant temperature and pressure Water has high latent heats  Vaporization and condensation  Melting/freezing  Evaporation © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.