Marine Sediments

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Lithogenous, Biogenous, Hydrogenous, and Cosmogenous sediment is defined. Neritic and Pelagic comparisons is also presented.

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Marine Sediments

  1. 1. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  2. 2.  Marine sediments contain a record of Earth history. Marine sediments provide a variety of important resources. Marine sediments have a variety of origins. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  3. 3. How is sedimentformed?  Eroded rock particles and fragments  Transported to ocean Deposit by settling through water column Oceanographers decipher Earth history through studying sediments. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  4. 4.  Paleoceanography – study of how ocean, atmosphere, and land interactions have produced changes in ocean chemistry, circulation, biology, and climate  Marine sediments provide clues to past changes. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  5. 5.  Classified by origin Lithogenous – derived from land Biogenous – derived from organisms Hydrogenous or Authigenic – derived from water Cosmogenous – derived from outer space © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  6. 6. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  7. 7.  Eroded rock fragments • Produced by from land weathering Also called terrigenous – Breaking of rocks into smaller pieces Reflect composition of rock from which derived © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  8. 8.  Small particles eroded and transported Carried to ocean  Streams  Wind  Glaciers  Gravity Greatest quantity around continental margins © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  9. 9. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  10. 10. © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  11. 11.  Proportional to energy of transportation and deposition © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  12. 12.  Neritic  Shallow-water deposits  Close to land  Dominantly lithogenous  Typically deposited quickly Pelagic  Deeper-water deposits  Finer-grained sediments  Deposited slowly © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  13. 13.  Beach deposits  Mainly wave-deposited quartz-rich sands Continental shelf deposits  Relict sediments Turbidite deposits  Graded bedding Glacial deposits  High latitude continental shelf  Currently forming by ice rafting © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  14. 14.  Fine-grained material Accumulates slowly on deep ocean floor Pelagic lithogenous sediment from  Volcanic ash (volcanic eruptions)  Wind-blown dust  Fine-grained material transported by deep ocean currents © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  15. 15.  Abyssal Clay  At least 70% clay sized particles from continents  Red from oxidized iron (Fe)  Abundant if other sediments absent © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc.
  16. 16.  Hard remains of once-living organisms  Two major types:  Macroscopic  Visible to naked eye  Shells, bones, teeth  Microscopic  Tiny shells or tests  Biogenic ooze  Mainly algae and protozoans© 2011 Pearson Education,Inc.
  17. 17.  Two most common chemical compounds:  Calcium carbonate (CaCO3)  Silica (SiO2 or SiO2·nH2O)© 2011 Pearson Education,Inc.

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