BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY
OF WATER BODIES

Jitendra Kumar
Depat. Fisheries Resource Management)
College of Fisheries, Mangal...
Introduction
• Biological productivity as an index of water
quality and production potential of cultured
organism needs pr...
What is an ecosystem?
• An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between
all living and non-living things
• Ecosystem is...
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
Components of an Ecosystem
ABIOTIC
COMPONENTS
Sunlight
Temperature
Precipitation
Water or moisture
Soil or water chemistry...
Habitat and ecological niche
Habitat and niche
• “the place Habitat = Address or home of an organism
Niche = Occupation of...
Food cycle in water bodies
The transfer of
food energy
from the plants
through a series
of organisms is
referred to as
the...
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
• The term “productivity” is always used in this
context to mean „rate of production‟ or „rate of
energy flow‟.
• Gross pr...
Concept of productivity
• The biological productivity of aquatic systems,
as of land, has been at several levels.
• Primar...
• Basic or primary productivity
– rate at which energy is stored by photosynthetic
activity of producer organisms
– (chlor...
• Gross primary productivity
–The total rate of photosynthesis
including organic matter used up in
respiration during the ...
• Net primary productivity
–The rate of storage of energy as food
matter i.e. excluding the energy
dissipated as respirati...
• Secondary productivity
–The rates of energy storage at trophic
levels of consumers and decomposers
are referred to as “s...
Measurement of productivity
Harvest method

• This is the simplest and measuring the
productivity of a water body such as ...
Oxygen measurement method
• Primary productivity can be measured from the
amount of oxygen consumed by a volume of
water i...
Diel method
• Estimates of primary productivity can also be made
from diel changes in oxygen, considering the day as the
l...
C14 method
• The most accurate method for determining productivity
is the method of using radioactive carbon (C14) added
a...
References
• http://www.scribd.com/doc/14179924/13-Structureand-Function-of-Ecosystem
• www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC176...
THANK YOU
jitenderanduat@gmail.com
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Biological productivity of water bodies

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  • In the present discussion we shall look first at primary production and then show this influences secondary production in water bodies.
  • Biological productivity of water bodies

    1. 1. BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTIVITY OF WATER BODIES Jitendra Kumar Depat. Fisheries Resource Management) College of Fisheries, Mangalore jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    2. 2. Introduction • Biological productivity as an index of water quality and production potential of cultured organism needs prime consideration for site selection. • Productivity quantitative in terms of qualitative and • Before we enter into a discussion on productivity, it would be helpful to look at the concepts of the ecosystem, habitat and ecological niche, and food cycle in water bodies, including food chain and trophic structure. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    3. 3. What is an ecosystem? • An ecosystem is formed by the interactions between all living and non-living things • Ecosystem is the basic functional unit of ecology in which include both living and non-living things • Eco= Environment • System = Regularly interacting and interdependent components forming a unified whole • Ecosystem = an ecological system; = a community and its physical environment treated together as a functional system jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    4. 4. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    5. 5. Components of an Ecosystem ABIOTIC COMPONENTS Sunlight Temperature Precipitation Water or moisture Soil or water chemistry etc. BIOTIC COMPONENTS Primary producers Herbivores Carnivores Omnivores Detritivores etc. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    6. 6. Habitat and ecological niche Habitat and niche • “the place Habitat = Address or home of an organism Niche = Occupation of an organism in its where it lives”, community • whereas the ecological niche • Term coined by Elton in 1927. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    7. 7. Food cycle in water bodies The transfer of food energy from the plants through a series of organisms is referred to as the “food chain”. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    8. 8. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    9. 9. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    10. 10. • The term “productivity” is always used in this context to mean „rate of production‟ or „rate of energy flow‟. • Gross production (PG) • Net production (PN) • Secondary productivities (P2 - P5) jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    11. 11. Concept of productivity • The biological productivity of aquatic systems, as of land, has been at several levels. • Primary productivity • Gross • Net primary productivity • Secondary – various trophic levels jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    12. 12. • Basic or primary productivity – rate at which energy is stored by photosynthetic activity of producer organisms – (chlorophyll bearing organisms, mainly plants and phytoplankton) – In the form of organic substances which can be used as food substances. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    13. 13. • Gross primary productivity –The total rate of photosynthesis including organic matter used up in respiration during the measurement period –(also known as total photosynthesis or total assimilation). jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    14. 14. • Net primary productivity –The rate of storage of energy as food matter i.e. excluding the energy dissipated as respiration by plants –(also referred to as “apparent” photosynthesis or net assimilation). jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    15. 15. • Secondary productivity –The rates of energy storage at trophic levels of consumers and decomposers are referred to as “secondary productivities”; jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    16. 16. Measurement of productivity Harvest method • This is the simplest and measuring the productivity of a water body such as fish pond by harvest at the end of the season. • The productivity given is secondary productivity and indicates net productivity and also quite often fish production given is in net weight giving productivity value. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    17. 17. Oxygen measurement method • Primary productivity can be measured from the amount of oxygen consumed by a volume of water in a fixed period of time • White and dark bottles • (bottle painted dark so light would not enter) • Do (dissolved oxygen) measurement • BOD jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    18. 18. Diel method • Estimates of primary productivity can also be made from diel changes in oxygen, considering the day as the light bottle and night as the dark bottle. • The increase in DO in the day time is net primary production and the decrease in the night is half the diel respiration. • This can be added on to the day-time gain to obtain daily gross photosynthesis. • This volume should normally be corrected for the loss or gain in oxygen due to concentration gradient over the day. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    19. 19. C14 method • The most accurate method for determining productivity is the method of using radioactive carbon (C14) added as carbonate. • Labelled carbonate is added into a bottle containing water with the phytoplankton and other organisms and after a short period of time the plankton is separated • dried and planchetted and the radioactive carbon fixed can be measured from the radioactive counts made. • The productivity measured thus is net primary productivity as the carbon fixed in the tissues only are measured here. jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    20. 20. References • http://www.scribd.com/doc/14179924/13-Structureand-Function-of-Ecosystem • www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC176E/AC176E05.htm • www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/66012/biologica l-productivity • www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC176E/AC176E08.htm • http://www.globalchange.umich.edu/globalchange1/c urrent/lectures/kling/ecosystem/ecosystem.html • www.fao.org/docrep/field/003/AC176E/AC176E02.htm • www.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ecosystem jitenderanduat@gmail.com
    21. 21. THANK YOU jitenderanduat@gmail.com

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