2. Most abundant gases in today’satmosphere? (%) Nitrogen (78 %) Oxygen (21 %)
3. Most abundant gas in thestratosphere? Ozone
4. Why does the temperature inthe stratosphere increase? Absorbtion of ultraviolet radiation by ozone.
5. Formal name of a “stormy andpuffy” cloud? Cumulonimbus.
6. Freezing point of water inCelsius? 0 (zero)
7. Define “Latent Heat.” “hidden” heat. Energy released or radiated during a phase change of water without changing the temperature.
8. Solar energy reaches the Earthby… radiation
9. What part of theelectromagnetic spectrum do we“see?” Visible light.
10. In general, where is the bestplace to see the aurora borealis? at the magnetic north pole.
11. Instrument to measure“relative humidity?” psychrometer
12. Define: Dew Point The temperature to which air must be cooled in order to become saturated.
13. Give characteristics of… Cirrostratus Cumulus Altostratus Stratus
14. Condensation nuclei? Microscopic dust or ice where water vapor can condense on to form a water droplet.
15. What is the standard unit areair pressure? millibars
16. Instrument that measures airpressure? barometer
17. Describe offshore (seabreeze)winds. Heat rises over land, cool air sinks, convection current causes winds to blow from the sea.
18. What is the main reason thatcauses sea and land breezes? Temperature differences. Heat capacity.
19. Describe a mountain breeze(orographic lifting). Warm air rises on the windward side of a mountain. Cool air interacts with warm moist air to form clouds. Dry air sinks on the leeward side.
20. If wind is blowing SLOWER than therotation of Earth, what direction wouldthe wind “appear” to the observer? west
21. What latitudinal areas wouldhave low air pressure? Equator (Doldrums) 60 degrees (Polar Easterlies)
22. Describe the following airmasses: cP, cT, mP, mT. cP – Dry and cool. cT – Dry and warm mP – Moist and cool. mT – Moist and warm.
23. Draw a cold front symbol.What color is it?
24. Name and describe the 3 stages of theThunderstorm cycle. Note when updraftand downdrafts occur! Cumulus – updraft, all upward movement. Mature – downdrafts & downdrafts. Severe weather Dissipation – downdrafts. Severe weather is diminished.
25. What is “Lightning?” A discharge on electricity from or within a thunderstorm.
26. Where is “Tornado Alley?” In the Central Plains of the United States.
27. What is need to “fuel” andhurricane? Moisture, preferably over water. Once it hits land, energy is diminished.
28. Describe the following: tropicaldisturbance, tropical depression, tropicalstorm, and typhoon. Tropical Disturbance – first indication of a hurricane formation. Sustained winds. Unorganized. Tropical Depression– thunderstorms begin to take circular shape. Winds are less than 39 mph. Tropical Storm – Just before a storm becomes a fully developed hurricane. Winds are 39 – 73 mph. Typhoon – Hurricanes in the Western North Pacific.
29. What part of a hurricane has thestrongest winds (use cardinal direction)? Northern side
30. What part of Earth do mosthurricanes form? Equator
31. Define heat capacity. Which has ahigher heat capacity? The oceans orcontinents? Describes how quickly or slowly a substance retains heat. Oceans has a high heat capacity. It has the ability to retain heat longer.
32. Name the formal names of theseasons. Autumnal Equinox Winter Solstice Vernal Equinox Summer Solstice
33. How are clouds formed? Warm moist air + Cool moist air + condensation nuclei. 3 ways:a. Warm air risingb. Orographic Liftingc. Fronts
34. Compare and contrast the generaltemperatures in the equator and the poles. Equator = warm (sun hits it directly) Poles = cool (sun hits it indirectly)
35. What happens to the temperatureas you increase in elevation? It decreases 4 degrees Celsius/1000 meters.
36. What is the scale used to measuretornado intensity? Fujita Enhanced Tornado Scale: F0 – F5
37. Define wind shear. A sudden change in wind speed & direction with height.
38. What is the scale used tomeasure hurricane intensity? Saffir-Simpson Scale (Categories 1 – 5).
39. Define a hurricane. An intense tropical weather system with a well defined circulation and maximum sustained winds of 74 mph (64 knots) or higher. In the western Pacific, hurricanes are called "typhoons.“ In the Indian Ocean, they are called "cyclones."
40. What is a storm surge? Storm surge is an abnormal rise of water generated by a storm, over and above the predicted astronomical tide.