Bio1 Intro C D

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Bio1 Intro C D

  1. 1. Biological Oceanography 1 Intro into Bio Oce
  2. 2. Biological Oceanography Vs. Marine Biology <ul><li>Marine Bio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Study of organisms that live in the ocean </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bio Oce </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interactions of marine organisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Biological </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abiotic </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Biological oceanographers generally study plankton and nekton communities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Basic marine ecology </li></ul><ul><li>Phytoplankton, Zooplankton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxonomy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trophic structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrient dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonal cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Population biology </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Terminology <ul><li>Plankton- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free floating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t “actively” swim against currents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diatoms, Jellies, copepods ect… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nekton- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Free swimming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fish, marine mammals ect… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Pelagic- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>open ocean zone </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. More terms <ul><li>Benthic- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>associated with the sea floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lobsters, seastars ect.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Epifuanal- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lives on sea floor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kelp, coral, sponges ect.. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Infaunal- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lives within the sediment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many worms, clams ect… </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. But first Abiotic environment <ul><li>Ocean zones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Habitat (benthic vs pelagic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects on organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Temp </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth (pressure) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buoyancy (viscosity) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Benthic zonation <ul><li>Divided based on depth: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supralittoral zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Above mean high water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Littoral zone (tidal zone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between mean high water & mean low water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sublittoral (subtidal zone) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low tide line to edge of continental shelf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathyal/abysall zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sea… 200m + </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Oceanic Habitats
  10. 10. Pelagic <ul><li>Neritic Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shallow water marine environment, from low water to edge of continental shelf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Oceanic Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean water seaward of continental shelf </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Pelagic <ul><li>Photic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Receives ample sunlight for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually <100m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dysphotic Zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Twilight zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100m – 450m </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Aphotic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dark zone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light insufficient for photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Temperature <ul><li>Considered to be the most important factor regulating the distribution of organisms in the ocean </li></ul><ul><li>Ocean temp range </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-1.8°-40°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90% of the ocean is colder than 5°C </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Temperature <ul><li>Biology Often follows Isotherms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>coral reef distribution, tropical fish, seasonal plankton blooms, ect…. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Temperature <ul><li>Temp exerts strong control over chemical reactions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In general, biochemical reaction rates double every 10°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Polar seas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slow growth and repo rates, long life spans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tropical </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast growth, high repo, short life spans </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Temperature <ul><li>Reproductive cycles often temperature timed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generally larval, young are more sensitive to fluctuations than adults </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Temperature regulation <ul><li>Temp at deep sea relatively constant </li></ul><ul><li>However surface creatures must adapat </li></ul><ul><li>Cold blooded vs warm blooded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not really </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Homotherms- Maintain constant body </li></ul><ul><li>Poikilotherms-varying body temps </li></ul><ul><li>Endotherms- produce heat </li></ul><ul><li>Ectotherms- external heat (don’t produce heat) </li></ul><ul><li>4 possible combinations </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Mammals-”warm blooded” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Homotherms, endotherms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most inverts- cold blooded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poikilotherms ectotherms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuna, large turtles?-Poikilotherms, endotherms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deep sea organisms?- Ectotherms, homotherms </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Salinity <ul><li>Defines “marine” environment </li></ul><ul><li>Effects on biology? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shells (CaCO 3 SiO 2 ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmoregulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biochemical reactions </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Salinity <ul><li>Strong haloclines are often present </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface organisms can tolerate salinity variations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mesoplegaic, deep seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>little salinity tolerance </li></ul></ul></ul>Depth Salinity
  21. 21. Salinity: regulation <ul><li>Most invertebrates are isotonic (same) to the surrounding environment </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute amount of salts are the same </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Different concentrations of specific salt </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Most vertebrates are hypotonic (less) to seawater </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must actively balance salt concentrations </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Salinity: regulation <ul><li>Diffusion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement from areas of high conc. to areas of low conc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the marine environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water* </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Salinity: Osmosis <ul><ul><li>Diffusion of water through a semi-permeable membrane from a dilute solution (higher water concentration) into a more concentrated solution (lower water concentration). </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Salinity: Osmosis <ul><ul><li>Membrane allows passage of the water but not the dissolved substances. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Salinity: Osmosis <ul><li>Fish In Saltwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypotonic : internal salinity is less than external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to lose water by osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drinks lots of seawater </li></ul><ul><li>Actively secretes excess salts through gills </li></ul><ul><li>Pees little, but very concentrated </li></ul>Salt
  26. 26. Maintaining osmotic balance <ul><li>Fish Freshwater </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypertonic : internal salinity higher than external environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend to gain water by osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Don’t drink </li></ul><ul><li>Pees lots of dilute urine </li></ul><ul><li>Specialised cells actively uptake the few salts </li></ul>Salt
  27. 27. Maintaining an osmotic balance <ul><li>Most marine invertebrates isotonic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can’t regulate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bivalves : close valves in fw or air </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lobsters : motile, move with salinity </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Maintaining an osmotic balance <ul><li>Some polychaetes & crustaceans capable of osmoregulation through gills </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively change internal salinity </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Hydrostatic pressure <ul><li>Pressure created by the water column </li></ul><ul><li>Function of density (T&S) and depth </li></ul><ul><li>10m (33ft)- 1atm </li></ul><ul><li>Which is more compressible? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasses or Liquids? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasses </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Pressure <ul><li>Many shallow water spp. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use gas for buoyancy control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can cause problems for marine mammals lungs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mesopelagic fish, air bladders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>deep sea spp. ?? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have “lost” gas spaces, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>use oils, fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure insensitive. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Pressure <ul><li>Marine mammals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Streamlines shapes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lower oxygen consumption rate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myoglobin in tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Binds to oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collapsible lungs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mammalian dive reflex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lowers blood flow to extremities </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Buoyancy <ul><li>Important in energy expenditure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively swimming vs. free floating </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some plankton have ~body density as sea water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neutral buoyancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other organisms must adapt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many different strategies </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Buoyancy adaptations <ul><ul><li>Some ingenious adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gas champers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portuguese man-o-war, Chamber nautilus </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Buoyancy adaptations <ul><li>Swim bladders </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Some Fish </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Oil droplets, </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease density eg. Copepods, diatoms </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ion exchange </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Giant squid </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Buoyancy <ul><li>Spines, ruffles feathery appendages </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase surface area eg. radilarians, copepods </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Denser tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must actively swim, some large marine mammals, sharks </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Lighter tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blubber helps marine mammal float </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Buoyancy <ul><li> temperature </li></ul><ul><ul><li> viscosity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cold water more viscous </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smaller organisms float better in polar waters, need less adaptations </li></ul></ul>Tropical copepod Polar copepod
  37. 37. Light <ul><li>Why is light important? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light attenuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioluminescence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Predator/prey relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive cycles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  38. 38. Light <ul><li>Different wavelengths not transmitted equally </li></ul><ul><li>Long wavelengths absorbed first </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red absorbed rapidly in top 10m </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue & green transmitted to greater depths </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Therefore objects appear blue at depth </li></ul></ul>ROYGBIV
  39. 39. Light <ul><li>In shallow water – all wavelengths present & natural colors seen </li></ul><ul><li>Deep – objects more blue: illuminated by blue light. Red objects appear grey/black </li></ul>
  40. 40. Light <ul><li>Bioluminescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light produced by organism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caused by Luciferin reacting with the enzyme luciferaqse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a chemical reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces light with a 99% efficiency </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Light <ul><li>Sunlight restricts primary production to the photic zone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adaptations of PP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of different pigments at depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More about this in later classes </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Bioluminescence <ul><li>Can be produced by microscopic plankton </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Entire body glows </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Predators can incorporate glow </li></ul><ul><li>Larger sp. have photospheres </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Light producing organs </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Bioluminescence <ul><li>Can be used a means of communication </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in reproductive cycles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mate attraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often tied to lunar cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Camouflage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Counter shading </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Defense </li></ul><ul><li>Prey attraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lures </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Color <ul><li>Can be used for a variety of uses </li></ul><ul><li>Attract mates </li></ul><ul><li>Warnings </li></ul><ul><li>Camouflage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Blend into background (corals) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of red at depths (eg shrimps) </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Fish Coloration <ul><li>Countershading: open ocean fish </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Obliterative countershading: Back is dark green/blue/gray, shades graduate on sides to pure white on belly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. tuna, marlin, swordfish </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients often limit production in photic zone - utilization by 1° producers </li></ul><ul><li>Below photic zone, nutrients occur in high concentrations </li></ul>
  47. 47. Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients regenerated & returned: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upwelling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turbulence & mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bacterial decomposition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formation and excretion of waste materials </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Nutrients <ul><li>Nutrients are non-conservative </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Change ratio with biological activity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutrient in lowest concentration will limit 1 o productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Leibig’s law of minimum </li></ul>
  49. 49. Nutrients <ul><li>Don’t worry more to come… </li></ul>
  50. 50. Key concepts <ul><li>What is Biological Oceanography </li></ul><ul><li>Nekton vs. plankton </li></ul><ul><li>Define phytoplankton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zooplankton </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What factors effect the plankton communities </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>What are the main ocean zones? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pelagic vs benthic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What are some general biological patterns </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seasonality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>latitude </li></ul></ul>

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