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computer processors intel and amdPresentation Transcript
NAGINDAS KHANDWALA COLLEGE OF MANAGEMENT STUDIES
COMPUTERS ( I.T.) Topic – Processors Prof. – SheetalVyas
INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS "Computer" is a collection of devices that function as a unit.
The most basic collection includes a Computer CPU, a Monitor, a Keyboard, and a Mouse.
Processors (CPU) A Central Processing Unit (CPU) or processor is an electronic circuit that can execute computer programs A processor is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drives a computer. It handles the central management functions of a high-powered PC.
Computer Processor: What is it? A computer processor analyzes data and controls data flow in a computer. Its speed is measured in gigahertz (GHz), with common speeds ranging from 2.6 to 3.66 GHz. It comes in a small microchip and fits into a socket on the motherboard.
Graphics A graphics processing unit or GPU is a specialized processor that offloads 3D graphics rendering from the microprocessor. In a personal computer, a GPU can be present on a video card, or it can be on the motherboard.
Functioning of Processors MAINLY 3 Functions MACHINE CYCLE TIME CLOCK SPEED WORD LENTH BUS SPEED
Machine cycle time :-An instruction cycle' is the time period during which a computer processes a machine language instruction from its memory or the sequence of actions that the central processing unit (CPU) performs to execute each machine code instruction in a program. Clock Speed :-Clock speed is a measure of how quickly a computer completes basic computations and operations. a clock speed of 800MHz is running 800,000,000 cycles per second, while a 2.4GHz computer is running 2,400,000,000 cycles per second. Word length :- The word length is the number of bits the CPU can process per second. Early CPUs were 4 bits /sec, but now we have 8, 16 and 32 , 64 bit machines. Bus speed :Data is transferred from CPU to other systems components via the Bus lines The number of bits a bus line can transfer at any one time is known as bus line width.
Two Types of Processing MULTIPROCESSING - When two or more computers are used, they are tied together with a high-speed channel and share the general workload between them PARALLEL PROCESSING - The simultaneous use of more than one CPU or processor core to execute a program or multiple computational threads
COMPONENTS OF PROCESSORS
Processors Components Execution unit - the core of the CPU, the execution unit processes instructions.Branch predictor- he branch predictor attempts to guess where the program will jump Floating point unit- The floating point unit (FPU) is a specialized logic unit optimized to perform non integer calculations much faster than the general purpose logic unit can perform them Primary cache - also called Level 1 or L1 cache, primary cache is a small amount of very fast memory that allows the CPU to retrieve data immediately Bus interfaces - Bus interfaces are the pathways that connect the processor to memory and other components.
Processor Speed-The processor clock coordinates all CPU and memory operations by periodically generating a time reference signal called a clock cycle or tick Processor Architecture Clock speeds increase every year, but the laws of physics limit how fast CPUs can run Wider data busses and registersFor a given clock speed, the amount of work done depends on the amount of data processed in one operation FPUs All CPUs work well with integers, but processing floating-point numbers to high precision on a general-purpose CPU requires a huge number of operations
KINDS OF PROCESSOR
AMD PROCESSORS AMD - Advanced Micro Devices popular models are AMD Athlon™ XP and AMD Athlon™ 64 Best for gaming and softwares
History of AMD Began operation in 1969. The company has specialized in developing products such as computer processors, microprocessors and motherboard chipsets AMD, founded by Jerry Sanders and Edwin Turney has grown to become the second largest global supplier of microprocessors and the third largest supplier of the world’s graphics processing units.
AMD chipsets Before the launch of Athlon 64 processors in 2003, AMD designed chipsets for their processors spanning the K6 and K7 processor generations The chipsets include the AMD-640, AMD-751 and the AMD-761 chipsets.
Embedded systems AMD has been introducing 64-bit processors into its embedded product line starting with the AMD Opteron processor
AMD Flash technology While less visible to the general public than its CPU business, AMD is also a global leader in flash memory AMD established a 50-50 partnership with Fujitsu called FASL, and merged into a new company called FASL LLC in 2003
AMD Mobile platforms AMD started a platform in 2003 aimed at mobile computing, but, with fewer advertisements and promotional schemes, very little was known about the platform. The platform used mobile Sempron processors.
The Future After 32 bit and 64 bit chips new chip 128 bit with 4.5 GHZ Name - dual-core POWER6