Motherboard is a main (PCB) printed circuit board.
Where are all the components or devices are connected directly
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD
• INTEGRATED MOTHERBOARD
• NON INTEGRATED MOTHERBOARD
• DESKTOP MOTHERBOARD
• LAPTOP MOTHERBOARD
• SERVER MOTHER BORD
• AT MOTHERBOARD
• ATX MOTHERBORD
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD BASED
ON DEVICES THEY SUPPORT
• Integrated motherboard
• Non integrated motherboard
An integrated system board has multiple components integrated into
the board itself. These may include the CPU video card , sound card
and various controller cards.
NON INTEGRATED MOTHERBOARD
Non integrated system board uses installable components and
expansion cards. For example, non integrated system board may
allow you to upgrade the video card by removing the old one and
installing a new one. Non integrated motherboard typicaly have
several PCI expansion slots as well.
TYPES OF MOTHERBOARD
BASED ON FORM FACTOR
2 . ATX
AT MOTHERBOARD IS A MOTHERBOARD WHICH HAS
DIMENSIONS OF THE ORDER OF SOME HUNDRED
MILLIMETERS, BIG ENOUGH TO BE UNABLE TO FIT IN MINI
ADVANCED TECHNOLOGY EXTENDED,OR POPULARLY
KNOWN AS THE ATX, ARE THE MOTHERBOARD WHICH
WERE PRODUCED BY THE INTEL IN MID 90`S AS AN
IMPROVEMENT FROM THE PREVIOUSLY WORKING
MOTHERBOARD SUCH AS AT.
BASED ON USE
1. Desktop motherboard
2. laptop Motherboard
3. server motherboard
• Desktop motherboard are used in personal or
desktop computer. As it is used for application at
home and in office, this type of motherboard is the
most basic type
• Laptop motherboard is used to connect different parts of a laptop
system. These motherboard generally have very advanced
features as compared to the desktop motherboard and most of
the functions have been integrated into the laptop motherboard
• Server motherboard are more advanced then desktop
motherboard and are designed to offer high -end service which
are more reliable and ready to operate in 24*7 environments.
Motherboard are available in various sizes and configurations.
Some motherboard support 32 and 64 bit processor as well
operating system. It is manufacturers by many companies such as.
FORM FACTOR MOTHERBOARD
REPRESENT THE SIZE OR SHAPE OF MOTHERBOARD
2. MICRO ATX
• IMPROVEMENT DONE IN EASLY TO USE, SUPPORT FOR
CURRENT AND FUTURE I/O, AND ALSO TO CURRENT AND
MICRO ATX MOTHERBOARD
• SUPPORTS CURRENT AND NEW PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGIES .
AGP (ACCELERATED GRAPHICS PORT) TO HAVE HIGH
.BASED ON DESIGN BY WESTERN DIGITAL.
.Usually found in desktop pc’s.
. High quality product at low cost but makes difficult to
upgrade and repair.
• support current and future processor technologies.
• also support new AGP and tall memory technology.
• installing and upgrading the system is easy.
The BTX, or Balanced Technology Extended form factor,
unlike its predecessors is not an evolution of a previous
form factor but a total break away from the popular and
dominating ATX form factor
1 CLOCK GENRATER
2. CPU socket
3. Memory Socket Memory error checking
4. BIOS RAM
5. CMOS Ram
8. Expansion Slot
9. AGP Port
10. IDE Ports
13. Floppy Disk port
14. IO Connectors/USB ports USB port add more printer ports
15. Main Power Connector1
16. Front Panel Connecting Pin
17.CPU FAN SOCKET
• Chip set is a set of IC.
• The combination of
the North and Southbridge
in a computer is Called
SUPER I/O CHIP IS A SINGLE CHIP WHICH CANTROLS
SLOWER I/O DEVICES WHICH ARE NOT CONTROLLED BY
MEMORY SOCKET( DIMM
• There are 3 types of memory that currently popular used in the PC,
1. RD RAM
2. DDR RAM
3. SD RAM
-Used in Pentium 4 motherboard
- 2 Notches
-highest performance and is most
-128 MB, 256 MB, 512 MB.
-medium high performance and
-lowest performance and lowest
• A CPU socket or slot is an electrical
component that attaches to a printed
circuit board (PCB) and is designed to
house a CPU (also called a
• It is a special type of integrated circuit
socket designed for very high pin counts.
• CPU sockets on the motherboard can
most often be found in most desktop
and server computers (laptops typically
use surface mount CPUs), particularly
those based on the Intelx86 architecture.
The CPU and RAM Communication
The data bus transports the
processed data to the RAM so
it can be stored, displayed, or
Read-Only Memory can
be read but not changed.
It is non-volatile storage: it remembers its contents
even when the power is turned off.
ROM chips are used to store the instructions a
computer needs during start-up, called firmware.
Some kinds of ROM are PROM, EPROM, EEPROM,
o This is a 3 volt battery, this
battery supplies the power
to CMOS ram for CMOS
ram to retain the
information during system
powered off, the battery
may be last for 5 or 6 years.
• ITS MAIN WORK TO
SET DATE AND TIME
EXPANSION SLOT ( PCI )
• Expansion slot or Expansion bus is the slot that enable the user to add
the adapter card for additional function to the system
Sound card or Multimedia
SCSI controller card.
Internal Modem card.
TV tuner card.
Additional hard disc controller card.
AGP ( Accelerated Graphic Port ) port is a high speed data transfer
port, this port is used by the display adapter card that demands so
much data with in short period of time.
Selecting a Motherboard
• Some questions to ask when picking a motherboard
– What form factor does the motherboard use?
– Does the motherboard provide proper CPU support?
– What type of BIOS does the motherboard use?
– Does the board fit the case you plan to use?
– What is the warranty on the board?
• Embedded (on-board) component
– Component located on the board
– Avoid board with too many embedded components
• Such boards do not easily accept add-on devices